Our Resources

Table of Contents

Sped Resources *


We are not responsible  for the content on other web pages and inclusion here does not necessarily constitute an endorsement of all or any of their content. *

NASP-State-Affiliate-Web1NASP List of State School Psychology Associations *

State School Psychology Associations *

The State School Psychology Credentialing Requirements list provides information on:

  • Credentialing requirements needed to practice in schools
  • Continuing education requirements to maintain credentials
  • Whether the state accepts the NCSP as an alternative route to credentialing school psychologists
  • Scope of practice as it applies to the state education agency (SEA) credential
  • Contact information for state departments of education

State School Psychology Credentialing Requirements

NASP Approved Graduate School Programs *

Since 1988, NASP has been pleased to provide a national review and approval service for graduate programs in school psychology. NASP program approval/national recognition is an important indicator of quality graduate education in school psychology, comprehensive content, and extensive and properly supervised field experiences and internships, as judged by trained national reviewers. In addition, programs obtaining NASP approval allows for a streamlined process for program graduates to obtain the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) credential. Thus, NASP approval/national recognition confers multiple advantages to programs, program graduates, the profession of school psychology, and, most importantly, to the children, families, and schools that we serve.

NASP Approved Programs Listed by State


NASP maintains a comprehensive listing of Fact Sheets and Position Papers on most of the topics listed below.  Ordinarily, we would have included links to many/most/all of them, but NASP periodically revamps its website, making all such bookmarked links absolutely useless.  The only ways to find the current links are (1) to go to the NASP Website (click on preceding) and use their Search engine; or (2) use Google with NASP and other key words as your search terms.


Anxiety Disorders *

Also see: Selective Mutism and Mood Disorders

International Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Foundation
“The mission of the International OCD Foundation is to help individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) to live full and productive lives. Our aim is to increase access to effective treatment, end the stigma associated with mental health issues, and foster a community for those affected by OCD and the professionals who treat themQuote on anxiety: Anxiety is not being able to sleep because you said something wrong two years ago and can't stop thinking about it. www.HealthyPlace.com: .”

Anxiety and Depression Association of America
“r mission is to promote the prevention, treatment, and cure of anxiety, depression, and stress-related disorders through education, practice, and research.”

NIMH:  Anxiety Disorders
“Anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For a person with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away and can get worse over time.?

NAMI: Anxiety Disorders

“Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concern in the United States. An estimated 40 million adults in the U.S., or 18%, have an anxiety disorder.”

PTSD in Children and Adolescents

U.S. Dept of Veterans’ Affairs.  “This fact sheet provides information regarding what events cause PTSD in children, how many children develop PTSD, risk factors associated with PTSD, what PTSD looks like in children, other effects of trauma on children, and treatments for PTSD.”

PTSD in Children Six and Under
“Posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is diagnosed after a person experiences symptoms for at least one month following a traumatic event.”



Assessment *

Note: for additional information, visit our Test Info and Test Tools pages

Regression Toward Mediocrity in Heredity Statutre   (September 27, 2016)
1886 paper by Francis Galton.  Downloaded  for younger readers who were not around when it was published.  (Regression is not just a statistical phenomenon; it is also a natural phenomenon.)

Regression toward Mediocrity — John Willis Slideshow Presentation
Some slides based on Francis Galton’s work in 1886  (Added February 19, 2017)

Information from Joel Schneider  (Updated 4/16/2016)
Joel Schneider’s information, scoring programs & tests  includes free software for analyzing and interpreting common psychological tests.    Other resources from Dr. Schneider include

Disability Documentation Guidelines for the College Boards   (Added 4/14/2016)
Without documentation, it is extremely difficult to get accommodations on the College Boards.   These guidelines provide a brief summary of the seven (7) basic requirements, along with links to specific requirements for a variety of specific disabilities

Gesell Developmental Assessment: Better Than You Have Heard?
In a dramatic change from its position in the 1990’s, Gesell’s director now says “Another criticism, I would like to address, is that Gesell Institute advocates the “wait a year” or “gift of time” philosophy for “younger” children or those with late birthdays. Gesell Institute does not want to be characterized for advocating this position. Today, we know that is simply not a choice to wait a year for many low income families. A qualified teacher should be able to meet the needs of any child of legal age that walks through the door.”  Additional information on the test may also be found at this website.

Practical Assessment Research and Evaluation
Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation (PARE) is an on-line journal providing access to refereed articles that can have a positive impact on assessment, research, evaluation, and teaching practice.

Marley Watkins Articles
Marley Watkins: articles, software, for the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents and the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale as well as statistical software for both MacIntosh and Windows,

Human Intelligence
Biographical Profiles of People who have influenced  the study of Human Intelligence – resources from Jonathan Plucker

Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography of over sixty books on IQ and Intelligence

Code of Fair Testing Practices

The American Psychological Association’s Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education

ASAIF Home Page
Association of Specialists in Assessment of Intellectual Functioning  (New Hampshire)

Strunk’s Elements of Style on line.  “Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student and conscientious writer”  (Paperback copy available from Amazon.)

DSM 5 Corrections Home Page
DSM 5 Implementation, Corrections  (Official)

Jack Naglieri Home Page
Listing of all Jack Naglieri’s tests with brief descriptions (which could, incidentally, be copied and pasted as test information in psychological reports).    Also  provides access to PDFs of research, past presentations, and handouts on many of those tests

OCR on High Stakes Testing (Archived)
Archived OCR Guide for High-Stakes Testing (2000) “This resource guide has been developed by OCR in an effort to assemble the best information regarding test measurement standards, legal principles, and resources to help educators and policy-makers ensure that uses of tests as a part of decision-making that has high-stakes consequences for students are educationally sound and legally appropriate.”

The Florida Center for Reading Research
“The Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) is a multidisciplinary research center at Florida State University. FCRR explores all aspects of reading research—basic research into literacy-related skills for typically developing readers and those who struggle, studies of effective prevention and intervention, and psychometric work on formative assessment.”

Jim Wright’s Intervention Central includes extensive resources and tools to assist in the implementation of RTI and Common Core.  Highly recommended.

Extensive information for assisting people with visual impairments

Pearson Assessments
Many publications.  “We offer a full range of proven standardized tests to help educators understand how students learn, what they know, and where they need help. “

Pearson Resources
Webinars, etc.

Chronological Age Caculator for Ipad or Iphone
Free download from Apple App Store

`Ron Hockman’s website.  “This site contains information to help promote and support school psychologists, parents, teachers, students and school systems.”  A general blog on assessment, with some additional materials on assessing executive functioning

Pygmalion and Hawthorne Effect
By Steve Draper: includes reviews of Hawthorne, Pygmalion, placebo effect

SSA Bluebook
Social Security Administration’s Disability Evaluation criteria  for SSI

SEDL Reading Data Base
SEDL (formerly the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory) Reading Assessment Data Base. “This database describes in detail all available early reading assessment tools that are published and distributed in the SEDL region. It is intended to provide valuable information about all of the options available to teachers and administrators who are seeking reliable reading assessment tools for children in grades Pre-K to 3.”

Extensive List of Articles on Assessment (Canivez)
Gary Canivez: Click on Publications/Reports for his articles on the WISC 5, the WPPSI IV, Stanford Binet and other testing topics

Word Finding 
Extensive information for professionals working with children with word finding difficulties, including recommendations for assessment, intervention, and  additional resources .

assessment 2

Assessment:  Why in standardized testing is the total score often more extreme than the sum of its parts? *

Why  are WJ IV Cluster Scores more extreme than the sum of  their parts?  (Joel Schneider) (Added 4/13/2016)
Assessment Service Bulletin No. 7 on the WJ IV from Houghton Mifflin.  “Composite scores are more extreme than the average of the test scores used to compute them. Because few other kinds of measurement behave this way, it is a frequent source of confusion to assessment professionals. Several analogies and technical explanations are offered to help readers understand this phenomenon.”

Why Composite Scores are More Extreme than the Sum of their Parts   (Joel Schneider)(Added 4/13/2016)
Same principles are explained but for a more general application to any high stakes test.

WJ III Odd Scores Explained   (Ron Dumont and John Willis)  (Added 4/13/2016)
The phenomenon wherein total or composite scores are lower or higher than the average of the subtest scores is neither new nor novel; this link refers to an earlier effort to explain the reasons behind it with respect to the WJ-III.

Composite Extremity Effects by John Willis
“This question of composite scores differing from the average of the component test scores comes up from time to time whenever someone stumbles across the phenomenon with a new test or whenever the total score winds up on the other side of an arbitrary classification demarcation from the (sub)tests (“How can Low subtests give us a Very Low composite?”).”




Assessment Ethics *

Note:  for general resources on ethics, see Ethics on this page.  Also, virtually every state department of education has written guidelines on Testing Ethics, the violation of which can and has cost school employees their jobs — which makes them less of a guideline and more of a rule.  Googling “My state” and “Testing Ethics” is recommended for definitive guidance.

Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (APA)
“The Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (Code) is a guide for professionals in fulfilling their obligation to provide and use tests that are fair to all test takers regardless of age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, linguistic background, or other personal characteristics. Fairness is a primary consideration in all aspects of testing.”

APA Ethical Code
“The American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles and specific Ethical Standards.”  (Amended 2010)“Ethical behavior is doing the right thing when no one else is watching – even when doing the wrong thing is legal” –Aldo Leopold:

APA Code of Fair Testing
Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education.  “The Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (Code) is a guide for professionals in fulfilling their obligation to provide and use tests that are fair to all test takers regardless of age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, linguistic background, or other personal characteristics.”

NASP Ethical Standards 2010
NASP ethics & professional standards 2010.  

OCR: Using Tests for High Stakes Testing
The Office for Civil Rights’ 2000 summary of assessment principles (Chapter 1) and legal prinicples (Chapter 2) to be considered in administered and applied when making high stakes decisions.


Assessment:  Third Party Observers *

Presence of Third Party Observers During Neuropsychological Testing
Official Statement of the National Academy of Neuropsychology

Secretive Recording of Neuropsychological Testing
fficial Statement of the National Academcy of Neuropsychology

“Neuropsychologists have asserted there are research findings indicating taping, recording, observing all impact on test findings, with some tests showing interference effects and some facillitation effects.”

Third Party Observation and Recording
American Board of Professional Neuropsychology

Statement on Third Party Observers
“This Statement does not constitute an official policy of the American Psychological Association (APA), does not purport to dispense legal advice, and is not intended to establish standards or guidelines for conduct by practitioners.



Assistants – One to One *

Note:  the following links discuss the pros, cons, and offer suggestions as to when a one to one assistant or aide might be appropriate.

Study Questions Effectiveness of Ones to One
“Many students receiving special education services are supported by one-to-ones, but new research suggests these assistants may not be pulling their weight.”

Jericho Schools: Pros and Cons of Individual Paraprofessionals
“It is important to evaluate a student and look at the pros and cons.”

NY SED Guidelines for Determining a Student with a Disability’s Need for a One-to-One Aide
“The purpose of this memorandum is to provide guidance to assist Committees on Preschool Special Education (CPSEs) and Committees on Special Education (CSEs) in determining a student with a disability’s need for a one-to-one aide. “ 

Addressing the Paraprofessional Dilemma in an Inclusive School
Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities:  “This article offers an in-depth description of one elementary school over a 3-year period. It chronicles the school’s use of an action planning tool to pursue alternatives to overreliance on paraprofessionals as well as service delivery and financial changes that occurred as a result of the school’s actions.”

Is Conventional Wisdom Wrong?
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities:  “Assigning one-to-one paraprofessionals has become an increasingly common response to support students with intellectual and other developmental disabilities in general education classrooms. This article challenges the conventional wisdom that such an approach to service provision is necessarily a desirable and supportive action.” 

Critical Issues Brief: Concerns about the Proliferation of one-to-one Paraprofessionals
Council of Exceptional Children, Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities (DADD)  “Though offered with benevolent intentions, inappropriate reliance on one-to-one paraprofessionals has been identified a practice fraught with limitations.”

This website provides special education teachers with tools and strategies for using AAC devices in their classrooms.:

Assistive Technology *

Section 300.105  Assistive Technology (2006 IDEA Regulations)
(a) Each public agency must ensure that assistive technology devices or assistive technology services, or both, as those terms are defined in Sec. Sec. 300.5 and 300.6, respectively, are made available to a child with a disability if required as a part of the child’s–
(1) Special education under Sec. 300.36;
(2) Related services under Sec. 300.34; or
(3) Supplementary aids and services under Sec. Sec. 300.38 and 300.114(a)(2)(ii).
(b) On a case-by-case basis, the use of school-purchased assistive technology devices in a child’s home or in other settings is required if the child’s IEP Team determines that the child needs access to those devices in order to receive FAPE.
(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(1), 1412(a)(12)(B)(i) )

Understood: Article on Free Technology
“To qualify for a free laptop computer to use at home and school, your child must first be evaluated to determine what (if any) learning needs she has and which kinds of assistive technology might best address those needs”

PLUK: Family Resources on AT
“Beginning early in life, technology is making it possible for children with disabilities to do more for themselves. ”

Wrightslaw: Assistive Technology
“Assistive technology helps children use their strengths to compensate or “work around” weaknesses caused by the disability. Assistive technology includes “devices” and “services.”

LD Online: Assistive Techology
“Here we explore new developments in technology that can accommodate people with learning disabilities.”

Providing Assistive Technology: A Legal Perspective
A 35 page guide on the legal ramifications of providing AT to Texas students.  A few narrowly defined issues apply only to Texas, but the discussion of national laws and regulations is ubiquitously relevant.

Search Abledata
Web site with a searchable database of 19,000 assistive technology products

Assistive Technology Links Library
“Check out our extensive collection ofassistive technology links and access some of the largest product catalogs, databases, and vendor directories available on the Internet.”  (Over 50 links, unannotated.)

WV: Deermining the Right Tool for the Job
General guidelines on AT assessment in West Virginia.  27 pages

Wisconsin: Assessing Students for AT
A resource manual for school district teams (337 pages)


Minnesota: AT Guidelines for Assessment and Services
“As we move to the 21st Century, teachers and students need to develop skills in the new technologies, use them in innovative ways, and apply them in the teaching and learning process efficiently and effectively.”  33 pages

Texas First: AT Considerations
“For every student who receives special education services, the ARD committee must consider the student’s potential need for Assistive Technology (AT). This does not necessarily mean that all students require a formal AT evaluation. The potential need for AT should be explicitly discussed and documented in the IEP records and not simply a “check box” section on the IEP form.”  Includes multiple links to state and national resources, including resources on enhancing communication with students with hearing, vision, or speech disabilities.




Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder *

Also see our pages on Disabilities/Other Health Impaired  and   Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Scales

ADHD and Sleep.   “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common mental disorder affecting both children and adults. The symptoms of ADHD and medication used to treat the disorder often interrupt the person’s sleep and result in related sleep disorders such as insomnia.”  Added July 6, 2017.

ADHD and med effects on risky behavior  Added September 5, 2016
In the U.S., 8% of children are diagnosed with ADHD and 70% of those are taking medications, yet little evidence exists on the effects of ADHD treatment on children’s outcomes. We use a panel of South Carolina Medicaid claims data to investigate the effects of ADHD drugs on the probability of risky sexual behavior outcomes (STDs and pregnancy), substance abuse disorders, and injuries. To overcome potential endogeneity,we instrument for treatment using physicians’preferences to prescribe medication. Our findings suggest that pharmacological treatment has substantial benefits. It reduces the probability of contracting an STD by 3.6 percentage points (5.8percentage points if we include STD screening),reduces the probabilityof having a substance abuse disorder by 7.3 percentage points, reduces the probability of injuries by 2.3 percentage points per year, and associated with them Medicaid costs decrease by $88.4, or 0.054 of a  standard deviation.

ADHD DSM 5 Criteria
andout with DSM 5 criteria
Although many states require a medical evaluation for an OHI classification (and some require a medical diagnosis), nothing in the federal 2006 FRnor in the Section 504 Regulations (both available for viewing or download from links on this website) prohibit an appropriately trained school psychologist from making an ADHD diagnosis nor do they require a medical diagnosis for ADHD.    School psychologists may wish to recommend a medical evaluation to rule out one or more of the 50 plus conditions that can mimic ADHD (see link below), but their diagnosis alone could establish eligibility under Section 504 for services even in states requiring a medical Dx under the IDEA.

Reference: 1999 Federal Regulations.  “In accordance with these procedures, if a determination is made that a medical evaluation is required in order to determine whether a child with ADD/ADHD is eligible for services under Part B, such an evaluation must be conducted at no cost to the parents. In all instances, as is true for all children who may be eligible for services under Part B, each child with ADD/ADHD who is suspected of having a disability must be assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (Sec. 300.532(g)).      There is no requirement under these regulations that a medical evaluation be conducted to accomplish these assessments.” (Emphasis added.)


Identifying and Treating ADHD: A Resource for School and HomeBlog Post: Revelations, Emotions, and ADD a post about the discovery of Adult ADHD:
An OSEP Publication.  “The results of a medical doctor’s, psychologist’s, or other qualified professional’s assessment indicating a diagnosis of ADHD may be an important evaluation result, but the diagnosis does not automatically mean that a child is eligible for special education and related services.”

Ritalin Side Effect
Ritalin Side Effects  —  Scroll down for patient information.

Contraindications for Stimulant Medication
xList list of common contraindications for specific ADHD stimulant drugs.

NIH consensus report on ADHD
1998 NIH consensus report on the treatment and diagnosis of ADHD  (Archived Report)

50 Conditions that Mimic ADHD (Handout)
50 conditions that mimic ADHD

Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) Home Page.  Some free materials are available under the “understanding ADHD” and “Advocacy” tabs.  Registering is free,  but membership cost $53.00 a year   in 2014.   More CHADD links follow:

CHADD Resource Directory
“The CHADD Directory is a resource for finding professionals, products, or others providing services for families and individuals living with ADHD. The Directory may be searched, first, by location. Addtionally the advanced search feature will help find Professional services by multiple criteria. “

CHADD’s National Resource Center on ADHD
“Information about ADHD online and over the phone. If you have a question about ADHD, our information specialists can help.”

Teen Health on ADHD
ADHD (TeenHealth)  Symptoms and signs, causes, treatment, tips to try

APA information and resources regarding ADHD
ADHD (American Psychological Association).    Issues in treating ADHD, Getting Help, articles on ADHD

ADDA Resources
Attention Deficit Disorder Association:  Helping Adults with ADHD

Mayo Clinic resources on ADHD
Mayo Clinic:  ADHD in Children.   Definition and links to additional topics.

LD Online resources on ADHD
ADHD Basics from  LDonline

NAMI resources on ADHD
What is ADHD?  National Alliance on Mental Illness

Russell Barkley resources on ADHD
Russel Barkley’s Official WebsIte.  “Welcome to the official website of Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., an internationally recognized authority on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD) in children and adults who has dedicated his career to widely disseminating science-based information about ADHD.”

Acetominiphen and ADHD symptoms
Acetominiphen can Cause ADHD like Symptoms  (Health Central)

Strattera Information
Pharmaceutical Co. Fact Sheet on Strattera

Cautionary Note:  See Disclaimer above with respect to the following links regarding alternative treatments.

Excersizing the Mind to Treat ADHD (NY Times 2014 Article)
An alternative approach to treating ADHD

ADHD Drugs Hurt Your Memory (TIME, 2014)
An unintended side effect?

Nutrient Supplement Approaches in the Treatment of ADHD (PubMed)
PubMed research article  on treating mineral deficiencies for ADHD

NCBI Alternative Treatments for ADHD (2003)
Summary of research on alternative treatments for ADHD (dated, but the research on alternative treatments is still sketchy))

WedMD: Alternative Treatments for ADHD
A cautionary review of alternative treatments

Mayo Clinic: Alternative Treatments for ADHD
A critical review of alternative treatments for ADHD

ADHD Traditional vs. Alternative Treatment
HealthCentral review of alternative treatments

Beating ADHD Naturally
One physician’s suggestions in the Huffington Post for non pharmaceutical interventions

FDA Q and A on Dietary Supplements (General Info)
U.S.  Food and Drug Administration Information on Dietary Supplements (General Information)

Harvard Medical School: FDA Needs Stronger Rules
Harvard Health Publications:  “FDA needs stronger rules to ensure the safety of dietary supplements”  (General Information)

Assessing Supplement Safety: the FDA’s Controversial Proposal
The New England Journal of Medicine:  General Information

Additional Links to ADHD Information
Not enough links?  Here are a bunch more from the CDC

Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, and PDD  *

Helping Children with Autism and ADHD Fall Asleep   (January 21, 2017)
“Problems with sleeping are common in children with ADHD and autism.”

Just Great Lawyers: Estate Planning for Parents of Children with Autism
“As people grow older, especially parents, they begin to think about the future, and how their children will be provided for after they’re gone. For parents of children without developmental disabilities, this is easier, as those children can typically provide for themselves.”  (July 15, 2016)

Sesame Street and Autism
Sesame Street and Autism:    (July 15, 2016)

Reduce the Noise
Help loved ones with sensory overload enjoy shopping

Autism International Research Center on Physical HealthThe tool kits below are products of on-going activities of the ATN/AIR-P and funded in part by cooperative agreement UA3 MC 11054 through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Research Program.

Institute for the Neurologically Typical
Semi-humorous dissenting opinion.  “Neurotypical syndrome is a neurobiological disorder characterized by preoccupation with social concerns, delusions of superiority, and obsession with conformity.”

Autism National Committee
The Autism National Committee “ is the only autism advocacy organization dedicated to ‘Social Justice for All Citizens with Autism’ through a shared vision and a commitment to positive approaches.“

FSU Center for Autism
Florida State University Center for Autism & Related Disorders.  “FSU CARD is dedicated to providing individuals with Autism or related disabilities, their families, and professionals who work with them, free consultation, resources, and educational support to build knowledge, confidence, infrastructure, and sustainability within the community.”

Dietary Intervention for Autism
Autism Network for Dietary Intervention.  “Providing Information for Families Using a Gluten & Casein Free Diet in the Treatment of Autism and Related Developmental Disabilities.”  Note:  Dietary interventions should ONLY be implemented in coordination with your child’s physician. Editor

National Autism Resource Center for Autism
National Autism Resource & Information Center.  “The Arc is the largest national community-based organization advocating for and serving people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families.”

Autism Society of American resources on autism
Autism Society of America.  “The Autism Society, the nation’s leading grassroots autism organization, exists to improve the lives of all affected by autism. We do this by increasing public awareness about the day-to-day issues faced by people on the spectrum, advocating for appropriate services for individuals across the lifespan, and providing the latest information regarding treatment, education, research and advocacy.”

Autism Speaks resources on autism
Autism Speaks.  “Autism Speaks was founded in February 2005 by Bob and Suzanne Wright, grandparents of a child with autism. Their longtime friend Bernie Marcus donated $25 million to help financially launch the organization. Since then, Autism Speaks has grown into the world’s leading autism science and advocacy organization.”

NH Coalition for Autism Insurance Reform
NH Coalition for Autism Insurance Reform (Last updated in 2012).   A New Hampshire based advocacy group dedicated to seeking full and fair coverage for the treatment of ASD

NY clinical practice guidelines for autism
Clinical practice guidelines NY Dept. of Health.  “More information about autism is available from the New York State Department of Health Bureau of Early Intervention’s publication Clinical Practice Guideline on Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Assessment and Intervention for Young children (Age 0-3 years). This publication provides recommendations based on the best scientific evidence available about “best practices” for assessment and intervention for young children to parents, clinicians, and others interested in autism.

Lovaas Home Page
Lovaas Institute for Early Intervention.  “We are committed to providing the highest quality treatment available to children diagnosed with autism or a related disorder. We approach this one child at a time by individualizing each child’s program to best meet his or her needs.’

US Autism and Aspergers Association 
Special Abilities, emphasis on autism, many links.  “US Autism & Asperger Association is a 501(C)(3) non-profit organization which boasts a proud network of world-renowned professionals with expertise in Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and other related disorders. US Autism & Asperger Association hosts a compendious world conference in the United States each year, establishes standards for Autism and Asperger Syndrome training, and aligns with local community resources to offer support for the entire Autism and Asperger communities.”

TEACCH Home Page
TEACCH program University of North Carolina  “Carolina is the No. 1 public institution in the world for autism research, according to a 2012 report from the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, a federal advisory committee. Ranked No. 2 overall, Carolina is just behind Harvard University.”

Tony Attwood resources on Aspergers
Tony Attwood on Asperger’s Syndrome (Australia)

Organization of Autism Research
Need more resources?  Research autism updates their links regularly.   “This is not intended to be a complete listing of organizations and resources available to parents, researchers, and other consumers in the autism community.  Inclusion on this list indicates that OAR is familiar with the organization or has reviewed the resource listed and that the organization, service, or resource meets OAR’s Link Listing/Link Exchange policy below.  Inclusion does not constitute OAR’s endorsement.”

Aspergers Association of New England
“The Asperger’s Association of New England (AANE) works with individuals, families, and professionals to help people with Asperger Syndrome and similar autism spectrum profiles build meaningful, connected lives. We do this by providing information, education,  community, support, and advocacy, all in an atmosphere of validation and respect.”

Ann Palmer publications
Books by Ann Palmer about autism

alternative therapies

Autism Alternative Interventions — Floortime and Son-Rise *

Inclusion here is for information only.    Floortime appears to be primarily directed to SLP service providers.   Floortime supporters claim it is evidence based.   Son-Rise program supporters appear to rely primarily upon anecdotal reports.  

Floortime vs. Son-Rise (A Comparison)
“Recently, approaches to Autism have shown an appreciation of the effectiveness of the child-centered approach. Stanley Greenspan developed the Floor Time approach which describes itself as child-centered and comes from the school of thought that social understanding can be taught and is the most powerful route for learning. It is similar to The Son-Rise Program in that the focus is on interacting with the child through that child’s own interests. Greenspan also recognizes the importance of the child-family relationship over child-professional relationships and encourages parents to play with their children “on the floor.”  Warning:  This comparison was written by The Autism Treatment Center, the primary promoters of the Son-Rise program.

  Autism Speaks:   Floor Time 
“As its name suggests, Floortime encourages parents to engage children literally at their level – by getting on the floor to play. Families can combine it with other behavioral therapies or use it as an alternative approach.”


Certification and Training for Floortime
The on-line training program costs  $345 and provides access to the course and the manual for 180 days.  SLPs can earn c.e.u.s  ccording to the information provided, however, “There is no certification.”  However see the following link for additional training opportunities.

Floortime Research by Dianne Cullinane
DIRFloortime is derived from over 50 years of study and research about child development from the fields of psychology, medicine, and education, and includes the areas of language, attention, mental health, infant development, sensory processing, and motor development.

Son-Rise Research
Although Son-Rise also has a research page claiming its program is evidence based, a comparison with the amount of information provided by Floortime is suggested.

Florida — The Floortime Model 
An 18 page article describing the Floortime (or Floor Time) program in depth.

Autism — The Floortime Model  A YouTube Presentation  (5:24 minutes)

Pediatric Services for Developmental Difference:  Dr. Greenspan — The History of Floortime
The FloorTime approach was developed by Dr Stanley I. Greenspan as part of his developmental approach to therapy. Parents and floor-time therapists help children master the emotional milestones needed to develop a foundation for learning. The approach is based on his belief that emotions give meaning to our experiences, as well as a direction to our actions. In this video, Dr. Greenspan shares with the audience attending the 2009 ICDL annual conference, the history of how he developed the DIR/Floortime model.

Autism Treatment Center — Son-Rise Treatment Program
Major source of information, training, and materials from the Autism Treatment Center

ABA v. Son-Rise — A Blog
A thoughtful but not unbiased comparison by an ABA service provider.  It is however dated.

critical comment

Critical  Comments on “Treatments” for Autism

Note:  Except where noted, neither Floor Time nor Son-Rise are explicitly mentioned in any of the following articles.  They are appended here simply as a reminder that the ESSA and IDEA require service providers in public schools to use research based, scientific interventions wherever possible.  Editor

Autism Watch –  Your Scientific Guide to Autism  (Added 4/22/2016)
Floor Time is described as an unsettled or investigational treatment; Son-rise isn’t mentioned at all.

Psychology Today — How the Quack Industry Harms Autistic Children  (Added 5/22/2016)
“Not only are many of the so-called ‘cures’ for autism that they promote worse than useless – causing discomfort and distress to the children, and even, in very rare cases, death – but the continual drive to ‘defeat autism’ prevents parents from coming to terms with their children’s condition, and can cause them to have a rather negative view of their own children.

FDA:  Beware of False or Misleading Claims for Treating Autism
(Added 4/22/2016) According to Gary Coody, R.Ph., FDA’s national health fraud coordinator, the agency has warned a number of companies that they are facing possible legal action if they continue to make false or misleading claims about products and therapies claiming to treat or cure autism. Some of these so-called therapies carry significant health risks.”

Autism Inc: The Discredited Science, Shady Treatments, and Rising Profits Behind Alternative Autism Treatments
(Added 4/22/2016)  An article from the Texas Observer.  “The road parents must navigate is made more perilous by medical professionals willing to prescribe all sorts of treatments, from hyperbaric oxygen chambers and chelation therapy (which removes heavy metals with chemicals) to shelves full of dietary supplements and other alternative remedies they say can treat, even cure, autism. At best these treatments remain unapproved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; at worst they are downright dangerous.”

FDA:  Beware of False or Misleading Claims for Treating Autism  (Added 4/22/2016)
A 2014 two page handout from FDA Consumer Health Information.






Autoimmune Diseases *

NIH (Medline Plus).  “An autoimmune disorder occurs when thebody’s immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune disorders.”
NIH  re autoimmune disorders

Autoimmune Disease Guide: Everything You Need to Know About Autoimmune Disorders.   Also publishes a free newsletter.
Del-Immune Home Page

Autoimmune Diseases Fact Sheet  (U.S. Department of Health).   Handouts, link, and free email updates to subscribers
Women’s Health Fact Sheet on autoimmune disorders

Find AutoImmune Disease Specialists by specialty
ZocDoc – Find a doctor by specialty

Autoimmune Disease in Women.  “Named a major women’s health issue by the Office of Research on Women’s Health at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), autoimmunity is the underlying cause of more than 100 serious, chronic illnesses.””  A Spanish version is available.
Auto-immune disease in Women

Osteoarthritis and the Medicare Advantage Special Needs Plan
Medicare Advantage and Osteoarthritis

National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
National Institute of Arthritis

Arthritis and the Benefits of Swimming
Swimming and Arthritis (Benefits)

A slightly more authoritative article re the topic above.
Arthritis Today: Water-Walking

Resources For Ensuring A Long Happy And Healthy Life
Kanetix Home Page
Thanks to Kelly Campbell





Blindness and Visual Impairment/Deaf Blind *

Also see our Disabilities/Blind and Visually Impaired page.

Accredited Schools Online: Helping Students with Visual Impairments
“This guide explains how colleges are creating more welcoming and inclusive learning environments, with a sharp focus on assistive technology, campus resources that provide assistive services and tools, information about scholarships for students with visual impairments, and online resources they can access to facilitate academic and career success.”

How Colleges Help Visually Impaired Students Succeed
“Obtaining a college education is no easy task, but for students with visual disabilities, the path to completing a degree program is lined with unique challenges and barriers. The following guide explores how visual impairments impact the educational experience, what colleges are doing for the visually impaired, and includes numerous resources, as well insight and tips from experts and a list of scholarships and grants.”

Physical Therapy for the Blind: Resources
” Many resources exist online to provide support, tips, and further information about blindness for those who are blind or visually impaired.”  (Thanks to Suzie Loomis)

National Consortium on Deaf Blindness Home Page
National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness.  “As a national technical assistance center funded by the federal Department of Education, NCDB works to improve the quality of life for children who are deaf-blind and their families”

AAO Home Page
American Academy of Ophthalmology is a professional association for opthalmologists, but this website is also a resource for patients and the public about eye diseases

ACB Home Page
American Council of the Blind.   “The American Council of the Blind strives to increase the independence, security, equality of opportunity and quality f life for all blind and visually impaired people.”

AFB Home Page
American Foundation for the Blind.  “he American Foundation for the Blind removes barriers, creates solutions, and expands possibilities so people with vision loss can achieve their full potential.”

APH for the Blind Home Page
American Printing House for the Blind.  “The American Printing House for the Blind (APH) is the world’s largest nonprofit organization creating educational, workplace, and independent living productsand services for people who are visually impaired.”

Kester Braille
Non-visual beginning Braille teaching materials.  “The Kester Braille Reading Program is designed to fill the need for non-visual materials to teach specific skills to beginning readers in the same sequence that these skills are taught to their sighted counterparts.”

Lighthouse International Home Page
Lighthouse International dedicated to fighting vision loss

Multiple Resource for People with Low Vision
Low Vision Gateway – lots of good information

History of Reading Codes
History of Reading Codes for the Blind

NFB Home Page
National Federation of the Blind

School Health Home Page
Near vision screening cards: register, then click on vision & hearing screening, then visual acuity charts,

Information from Lea on Vision Tests
On Lea near vision symbol card

Vision Card Instructions
Instructions for Lea near vision cards

Family Connect Home Page
Family Connect: Ideas on raising a visually impaired child

Charge Syndrome
Website for parents of children with Charge Syndrome.  “CHARGE syndrome is a recognizable (genetic) pattern of birth defects which occurs in about one in every 9-10,000 births worldwide. It is an extremely complex syndrome, involving extensive medical and physical difficulties that differ from child to child. “

Helen Keller National Center
Their mission is to enable  all deaf blind individuals to live in the community of their choice.

Accessible Travel
Travel tips for people with visual impairments (and other disabilities) by Patti Jackson (Wakanow.com travel agency)

WIKI List of On-line Resources for the Blind
A  wIKI compilation of links on blindness

Degenerative Disorders resulting in Blindness and Death

Children with the following disorders may require more frequent (at least annual) reevaluations and adjustments to their IEPs.

Batten Disease Fact Sheet
NIH:  “Batten disease is a fatal, inherited disorder of the nervous system that typically begins in childhood. Early symptoms of this disorder usually appear between the ages of 5 and 10 years, when parents or physicians may notice a previously normal child has begun to develop vision problems or seizures.”

Krabbe Disease
“The symptoms of Krabbe disease usually begin before the age of 1 year (the infantile form). Initial signs and symptoms typically include irritability, muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, episodes of fever without any sign of infection, stiff posture, and slowed mental and physical development. As the disease progresses, muscles continue to weaken, affecting the infant’s ability to move, chew, swallow, and breathe. Affected infants also experience vision loss and seizures.  Less commonly, onset of Krabbe disease can occur in childhood, adolescence,”

Image result for bullying

Bullying – Resources for Schools *

Federal Resources:  There were not at the time this was written any federal laws that explicitly dealt with bullying, but for our client population (children with disabilities) a number of civil rights laws offered additional protections.  An explanation of that interface can be found by clicking on this October 21, 2014 Dear Colleague from the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.

Virtually every state has a bullying law and/or  policy.  To find the laws in  your state, click on your state below

State Listing *

Both Law and Policy Law Only Policy Only No Data
Alabama (AL)

Alaska (AK)

California (CA)

Connecticut (CT)

Delaware (DE)

Florida (FL)

Georgia (GA)

Idaho (ID)

Illinois (IL)

Indiana (IN)

Iowa (IA)

Kansas (KS)

Kentucky (KY)

Louisiana (LA)

Maine (ME)

Maryland (MD)

Massachusetts (MA)

Michigan (MI)

Minnesota (MN)

Montana (MT)

Nebraska (NE)

Nevada (NV)

New Hampshire (NH)

New Jersey (NJ)

New Mexico (NM)

New York (NY)

North Dakota (ND)

Ohio (OH)

Oklahoma (OK)

Oregon (OR)

Pennsylvania (PA)

Rhode Island (RI)

South Carolina (SC)

South Dakota (SD)

Tennessee (TN)

Utah (UT)

Vermont (VT)

Virginia (VA)

Washington (WA)

West Virginia (WV)

Wisconsin (WI)

Wyoming (WY)

District of Columbia (DC)

Guam (GU)

Puerto Rico (PR)

Virgin Islands (VI)

American Samoa (AS)

Arizona (AZ)

Arkansas (AR)

Colorado (CO)

Hawaii (HI)

Mississippi (MS)

Missouri (MO)

North Carolina (NC)

Texas (TX)

Northern Mariana Islands (MP) Federated States of Micronesia (FM)

Marshall Islands (MH)

Palau (PW)


Virtually all state education departments provide some information and resources designed to assist schools in preventing bullying.  A sampling is listed below.  The resources they suggest would be helpful in any school in any state.

California – Bullying and Hate Motivated Behavior Prevention
Provides resources and numerous links to additional resources for parents, administrators, and students on how bullying can be prevented and addressed. Resources include publications, sample policies, and frequently asked questions.

Colorado – Bullying Prevention and Education
On the corresponding subpages you will find research summariesbest practices in bullying prevention, information on our upcoming bullying prevention grant, and resources for schools and communities to help reduce the frequency and intensity of bullying behaviors. This website was created with the help of many partners. Thanks to the Colorado Department of Education’s Support and Intervention Unit and Teaching and Learning Unit, the Colorado School Safety Resource Center, Colorado Education Initiative, and schools and districts across Colorado for their help in this endeavor.

Florida – Bullying Prevention
Bullying in schools is of increasing focus for Florida schools, districts, and for the Florida Department of Education. Florida Statute 1006.147, also known as The Jeffrey Johnston Stand Up for All Students Act, requires school districts to adopt an official policy prohibiting bullying and harassment of students and staff on school grounds, at school-sponsored events, and through school computer networks.

Hawaii – Anti Bullying Work
The Department is committed to providing a safe and enjoyable learning atmosphere for students, families and educators. We work to reduce bullying and cyberbullying by emphasizing a culture of respect, responsibility and resiliency, using a frame work of prevention, response and follow-up. We work with communities to promote understanding, and investigate incidents to ensure student safety.

Iowa – Bullying and Harassment
The Iowa Department of Education is committed to partnering and supporting schools in providing safe and civil learning environments, necessary for all students to succeed. Towards that end, the Department announced the opening of the new data collection system in August for bullying and harassment reports for all public and accredited non-public schools in Iowa.

Massachusetts – Bullying Prevention and Intervention Resources
These websites may include content that do not necessarily represent the official views of the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (“the Department”), and listing them here does not imply endorsement of any kind. The Department assumes no responsibility for, or any obligation to monitor the content, privacy practices, operators, availability, accuracy, quality, advertising, products, services, or other materials of these sites.

North Carolina — Bullying Resources.
Bullying can be defined as a form of aggression which involves one or more students verbally, physically, and/or psychologically harassing another student repeatedly over a period of time. Bullying often begins at the elementary school level, peaks at the middle school level, and then lessens in high school.

New Hampshire – Bullying and Cyberbullying Resources
Disclaimer: The NH Department of Education provides links as a service to educators and others seeking useful information relating to education. Some sites offer information free of charge; others charge a fee. The NH Department of Education takes no responsibility for the content, quality, or cost of materials available through any outside site.

New Jersey – Keeping our Kids Safe, Healthy and in School
Provided in this document are information and resources to aid schools in the establishment of HIB policies, the adoption of HIB program strategies, the implementation of proactive responses to HIB and the adoption of effective HIB reporting procedures.

New York — Dignity for All Students Act
A tool for training school employees

Ohio Anti-Harassment, intimidation, and Bullying Resources
All Ohio public schools work to create safe and supportive learning environments for their students and staff. As part of these efforts, state law says they must have policies prohibiting harassment, intimidation and bullying. Such behaviors can have negative and often long-term consequences for youth. This page presents a few of the many resources available to help addresses these issues.

Pennsylvania – Bullying Prevention
The Pennsylvania Department of Education, Office for Safe Schools bullying prevention webpage contains resources for parents, educators and professionals serving youth in school and out-of-school time settings

South Carolina – Bullying
A few resources for parents

Texas –  Coordinated School Health
This page provide the definitions and laws related to bullying and cyber-bullying. There are also many useful links to resources to assist in educating others about bullying and cyber-bullying

Utah – Bullying Prevention
The overall goal of bullying prevention and intervention is to provide every student with a safe and supportive school and social environment. For more information on how to prevent bullying, who is at risk, how to respond, and how to get help now, please visit stopbullying.gov

Virginia – Bullying Prevention
To help address and prevent bullying in public schools, a model policy was developed and adopted by the Board of Education. The Model Policy to Address Bullying in Virginia’s Public Schools(PDF) provides information to assist local school boards in formulating policies to help prevent bullying and procedures to report, investigate and intervene when bullying behavior occurs.





Canadian Links *

Differences between US and Canadian Norms
earson’s rebuttal to an article purporting to show Canadian norms resulted in Canadians scoring lower than Americans on the WAIS IV.   (8/7/2016)

Support for the Use of Canadian Norms for the WAIS IV   (8/7/2016)
“The purpose of the current study is threefold: First, to summarize the consistent finding of Canada–U.S. differences on measures of ability and present new empirical analyses to demonstrate these results are not due to a smaller sample size for Canadian norms. Second, and most importantly, matched sample comparisons demonstrate that the proportion of low scoring individuals (FSIQ < 85) in mixed clinical samples is consistent with the rates published by recent studies, and not greater than expected. Third, we offer evidence-based advice to clinicians practicing in Canada on the appropriate use of Canadian norms for Canadian clients during an individual assessment of intellectual functioning.”

Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards
“Serving member juridictions by promoting excellence in regulation and advancing public protection in psychology.”

The Great Canadian Psychology Website
“The Great Canadian Psychology Website introduces students to great Canadian researchers, their research methods, and their contributions to Psychology. Text biographies and video biographies for Canadian researchers are featured on this website.”

How to find a Psychologist in Canada
“Welcome to findapsychologist.ca, the searchable Directory of all Registrants of the Canadian Register of Health Service Psychologists (CRHSP). This Directory is updated every month and ensures that you have access to the most up-to-date list of qualified health psychologists”

Psychology Laws & Licensing Boards In Canada & the United States
“Where possible, links are provided for the licensing board’s home page and for various documents such as legislation relevant to the practice of psychology in that province or state, application information for a psychology license or registration, and continuing education requirements.”

 Association of Chief Psychologists/Ontario School Boards
Association of Chief Psychologists with Ontario School Boards.  “Our goal with this website is to provide reliable and research-based information to help students, parents, teachers and others better understand many of the psychological issues related to learning and development.”

Famous Psychologists of Canada
“List of notable or famous psychologists from Canada, with bios and photos, including the top psychologists born in Canada and even some popular psychologists who immigrated to Canada. If you’re trying to find out the names of famous Canadian psychologists then this list is the perfect resource for you. These psychologists are among the most prominent in their field, and information about each well-known psychologist from Canada is included when available.’

Canadian Test Centre
Canadian Test Centre.  “CTC/Canadian Test Centre Inc. is a wholly Canadian-owned and operated educational assessment service and publisher. Since 1980, CTC has acquired broad experiences in publishing, project management and large-scale data management and reporting.”

Council for Exceptional Children Provincial Units. “The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is the largest international professional organization dedicated to improving the educational success of individuals with disabilities and/or gifts and talents.”

Canadian Psychological Association Home Page
Canadian Psychological Association.  “The Canadian Psychological Association, or the CPA, is the national professional association of psychologists and counts students, researchers and health care providers among its membership of almost 7,000.”

Ontario Ministry/Special Education
Ontario Ministry of Education: Special Ed

Hincks Delicrest Centre
Free mental health resources.  “The Hincks-Dellcrest Centre is a children’s mental health centre located in Toronto, Canada, that provides prevention, early intervention, and treatment services to infants, children, and youth who live in local communities. For over thirty years, these services have included mental health consultation services to teachers and other school personnel”

LDAO Home Page
Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario.  “The Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario is a registered charity dedicated to improving the lives of children, youth and adults with learning disabilities. Our mission is to provide leadership in learning disabilities advocacy, research, education and services and to advance the full participation of children, youth and adults with learning disabilities in today’s society.”

Implications for Classification using Canadian WAIS Norms
“The ramifications of utilizing the different norms were examined with regard to psychoeducational assessments and educational placement decisions particularly with respect to the diagnoses of Learning Disability and Intellectual Disability.  ”

Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory and Applications *

Cattell Horn Carrol Theory is the basis of an assessment process known as cross battery assessment (usually abbreviated as XBA).  There are a number of books on the subject, but what follows are some online links to materials available for free.  (Added October 5, 2017)

An Overview of the XBA Approach by Dawn Flanagan.
:Flanagan and colleagues transformed the practice of crossing batteries into a method that is both psychometrically and theoretically defensible.   A slideshow presentation

The CHC Cross Battery Approach by Flanagan and Alfonso
” The XBA approach provides practitioners with the means to make systematic,
valid, and up-to-date interpretations of intelligence batteries and to augment them with other tests
in a way that is consistent with the empirically supported CHC theory of cognitive abilities.”

CHC Theory, Cross Battery Assessment, SLD
A YouTube presentation on the topic by Dr. Vincent Alfonso

Also see: Dumont-Willis CHC

The Mind Hub
Mindhub replaces Kevin’s IQ Corner and IAP home page.  ” MindHub™ is an internet portal that organizes cutting edge information and resources focused on measuring and improving the performance of the human mind and other domains of personal competence. MindHub™ represents a strategic partnership between the Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) and Interactive Metronome®”

CHC Videos
About twenty different videos, including six by Dr. Dawn Flanagan, for professionals seeking to link CHC theory to practice

The Cattell-Horn-Caroll Theory (Wiley On-line Library)
“The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities is the most comprehensive and empirically supported psychometric theory of the structure of cognitive abilities to date. ”

Psychology of CHC — SlideShare Presentation
23 Slides

Neuropsychological Assessment and CHC
A dissertation by James Hoelzle (2008) with a literature review




conduct disorder


Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders *

WedMD: Mental Health and Conduct Disorder
Conduct disorder is a serious behavioral and emotional disorder that can occur in children and teens. A child with this disorder may display a pattern of disruptive and violent behavior and have problems following rules.”

Mental Health of America: Conduct Disorder
“Conduct disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in children and adolescents in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated. The child or adolescent usually exhibits these behavior patterns in a variety of settings—at home, at school, and in social situations—and they cause significant impairment in his or her social, academic, and family functioning.”

Mental Health: Conduct Disorder
“Conduct disorder is a severe condition characterized by hostile and sometimes physically violent behavior and a disregard for others. Children with CD exhibit cruelty, from early pushing, hitting and biting to, later, more than normal teasing and bullying, hurting animals, picking fights, theft, vandalism, and arson. Since childhood and adolescent conduct disorder often develops into the adult antisocial personality disorder, it should be addressed with treatment as early as possible; the earlier treatment starts, the better the outlook.”

Medline Plus: Conduct Disorder
“Conduct disorder is a set of ongoing emotional and behavioral problems that occurs in children and teens. Problems may involve defiant or impulsive behavior, drug use, or criminal activity.”

Kids Mental Health: Conduct Disorder Oppostional Defiant Disorder
onduct  disorder/ODD is an exhausting disorder affecting children, or the entire family, when a child with the disorder behaves in a manner resembling the terrible two’s magnified by 50.”

Conduct Disorder vs. Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Teens with Problems (Differences based on the DSM IV)

NIH article on Predictors of Social Maladjustment in Boys
Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-5.


1267872_Confidential2Confidentiality *

Also see our page on FERPA

Home Page for FPCO
Family Policy Compliance Office (FPCO), United States Department of Education office responsible for enforcing FERPA and the PPRA.  Includes links to regulations, model parent notifications, and relevant court cases

Joint Guidance on FERPA and HIPAA
Joint FERPA & HIPAA Guidance from the United States Department of  Health and Department of Education; where FERPA rules, HIPAA does not.  Explains when HIPAA does apply in a public school setting

Additional federal guidance on HIPAA
Department of Health and Human Services guidance on the  medical privacy law

Wrightslaw on FERPA
An alternative source of FAQs. articles, caselaw, and other resources on FERPA

IDEA and FERPA Confidentiality Provisions
A side by side comparison by the United States Department of Education of the legal requirements imposed by Part B, Part C, and FERPA Regulations

OSEP Letter to Charlcie Flinn May 8, 2013
Provides requested clarification of how FERPA and HIPAA relate to Part C programs

ELCTA Webinar Summary on Confidentiality Questions
“This brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the sharing of sensitive child-level data and summarizes seven key points to know about FERPA and HIPAA on sharing education and health data – with an emphasis on data obtained and used by early childhood education programs. It is based on a webinar sponsored by the Early Learning Challenge Technical Assistance (ELC TA) program on April 21, 2014.”

130-RTI Model



Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA), Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM), Response to Intervention (RTI), Problem-Solving Model (PSM) *

Also see Multi-Tiered System of Supports below

Mark Shinn’s Resources and Downloads Page
One of the most comprehensive collections of downloadable materials on RTI on the Internet.

DIBELS Home Page
The official DIBELS homepage.  “The UO DIBELS Data System was developed and is maintained by education experts at the University of Oregon’s Center on Teaching and Learning.”

DIBELS for younger children
DIBELS for younger children.  “This web site is dedicated to assessing the results of early intervention and early childhood special education services provided young children birth through age 3. “

University of Minnesota Early Education
Progress monitoring tools Univ. of Minnesota.  “Obtain informational materials and assessment tools (IGDIs) for measuring the growth of young children’s language and literacy development.”

AIMSweb probes and research on CBM

RIPM (Research on Progress Monitoring)
Research Institute on Progress Monitoring

Heartland AEA 11
Heartland Area Agency, Johnston, Iowa  Special Education Page   Heartland AEA 11 was the pioneer in problem solving models and response to intervention cited by OSERS in the 2006 Final Regulations for the IDEA.

Florida Center for Reading Research  DIBELS

Intervention Central
Jim Wright’s Intervention Central

National Association of State Directors of Special Education
RTI Policies & Procedures book order form.  (Note:  state plans take precedence over NASDSE recommendations.)

RTI Graphing Tools for School Psychologists
Graphing tools for use in academic and behavioral monitoring : McDougal, Clark, & Wilson

National Center on Response to Intervention
National Center on Response to Intervention.  “The American Institutes for Research (AIR) ran the National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI) from 2007-2012 with a grant from the Office of Special Education Programs. When the Center’s federal funding ended in 2012, AIR took over upkeep and maintenance of the Center’s website and products.  The website’s updated look reflects this change, but products developed under the NCRTI name continue to be available and free to the public”

Also see our web page
State Links
for state specific links to regional resources on RTI


Deafness and Hearing Loss *

Closed Captioning and Other Assistive TechnologiesVideo Caption Corporation (OSEP approved vendor)

CLAS Institute Tech Report 6
Guide for serving hearing children with deaf parents

Galludet Home Page
Gallaudet University.  Many links and resources.

English to ASL Converter
ASL software.  Provides a visual and written description of the ASL equivalent of any word in their dictionary.   Quicktime is needed to see the pictures.

Listening and Spoken Language Center
Alexander Graham Bell Association – “On this page you will find a full listing of information and resources to help you learn about your child’s hearing loss, and things you can do to ensure they have access to language as early as possible. “

National Consortium on Deaf Blindness
National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness provide resources and a transition toolkit for enhancing self determination for young adults who are deaf and blind.

ASDC Home Page
The American Society for Deaf Children provides resources for families, educators, and providers

Information, e-news, and resources for the deaf

OCR: Serving Deaf Students
“The Department provides additional guidance about part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (section 504) as they relate to the provision of appropriate education service to students who are deaf.”

Products for the deaf and hard of hearing from a commercial vendor

NAD Home Paage
National Association of the Deaf describes itself as the premier civil rights organization for people who are deaf in the United States

Deaf Interpreters Registry
“The Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. promotes excellence in the delivery of interpreting services among diverse users of signed and spoken languages through professional development, networking, advocacy, and standards.”

Hearing Loss Association Home Page
“HLAA provides assistance and resources for people with hearing loss and their families to learn how to adjust to living with hearing loss. HLAA is working to eradicate the stigma associated with hearing loss and raise public awareness about the need for prevention, treatment, and regular hearing screenings throughout life.”

Accessible Travel  Travel Tips for people with hearing impairments (and other disabilities) by Patti Jackson (Wakanow.com travel agency)




Unilateral Hearing Loss (UHL) *

ASHA on Unilateral Hearing Loss
“Children with UHL may have difficulties in school. Being aware of these difficulties may help you and/or your child’s teacher to catch any problems early. Help is always available for your child.”

Resources for Children with Hearing Loss
“Many people think that if you hear fine in one ear that the other ear will make up for the ear with the hearing loss. This is not true. Having typical hearing in only one ear can result in learning problems that parents need to know about.”

Resources for Children One Page Handout
A handy dandy handout for teachers and parents from Resources for Children above.

National Workshop on Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss (2005)
DC Workshop Proceedings on UNL in 2005.  74 pages.

CDC Workshop Publication
Intended for professionals, this is a 74 page publication of the proceedings from a 2005 Workshop on Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss

Indiana UHL Handout
Although specifically written for the Indiana  Early Hearing  detection, the content is universally applicable.

Discipline *

King Sends Letter to States  Calling for an End to Corporal Punishment in the Schools.  “U.S. Education Secretary John B. King Jr. sent a letter today [November 25, 2016] urging state leaders to end the use of corporal punishment in schools, a practice repeatedly linked to harmful short-term and long-term outcomes for students.”  Added January 5, 2017.

NEA:  Why are 19 States Still Allowing Corporal Punishment.  “Between 1974 and 1994, 25 states would ban the practice, recognizing that it was an ineffective and inappropriate school discipline measure..”


eating disorder


Eating Disorders *

NEDA Toolkit
The NEDA Parent Toolkit was created to provide some of these tools that can be used in critical moments in your search for help, hope and healing. As one parent told us, “this toolkit was exactly the resource we needed when we started the journey for our family, we needed real resources, reassurance that we were not the only family with the challenge and that there would be light at the end of that tunnel.”

WebMD: Eating Disorders in Children
Eating disorders in children and teens cause serious changes in eating habits that can lead to major, even life threatening health problems.”

Eating Disorders: What Families Need to Know
University of Michigan Health System:  “Most importantly, you should know that eating disorders require medical attention.”

Kid Who Won’t Eat: How to Help Children with Eating Disorders
Parents.com:  “We’re not talking about run-of-the-mill food issues; these are children as young as 9 who battle anorexia and bulimia. Learn the danger signs so that you can protect your child.”

NIMH: Eating Disorders in Children
NIH:  “While many people are concerned about what they eat and their body image, eating disorders are marked by extremes. They are present when a person experiences severe disturbances in their eating behavior, such as extreme reduction of food intake or extreme overeating, or feelings of extreme distress or concern about body weight or shape.”

Mayo Clinic: Eating Disorders Symptoms
“Symptoms vary, depending on the type of eating disorder. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder are the most common eating disorders”

Children with ADHD more Likely to Have Eating Disorders
“Although many children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) lose weight when taking stimulant drugs to treat their condition, experts have found associations between ADHD and overweight and obesity.”


Willi Prader Syndrome *

PWS is a complex genetic disorder affecting appetite, growth, metabolism, cognitive function and behavior.  It is typically characterized by low muscle tone, short stature (when not treated with growth hormone), incomplete sexual development, cognitive disabilities, behavioral problems, and the hallmark characteristics – chronic feelings of insatiable hunger and a slowed metabolism that can lead to excessive eating and life-threatening obesity.  Those who have PWS need intervention and strict external controls, sometimes including padlocking access to food, to maintain normal weight and to help save their lives.

International Prader-Willi Syndrome Organization
“IPWSO is the international non-profit support group for all countries where there is even just one person with Prader-Willi Syndrome!  Our international umbrella supports all country PW Associations, and for all countries where there are no formal PW Associations, we support medical and parent delegates as part of our huge community.  IPWSO has 102 country members, and is a world-wide parent-led support organsation.”

NORD: Prader-Willi Syndrome
National Organization of Rare Diseases:  “Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized during infancy by lethargy, diminished muscle tone (hypotonia), feeding difficulties, and poor weight gain. In childhood, features of this disorder include short stature, small genitals and an excessive appetite because affected individuals do not feel satisfied after completing a meal.”




Emotional Disabilities *

For Sped Resources on ED, click here on Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Issues

For a more extensive review of social maladjustment, OSEP letters, and caselaw, click here on Emotional Disabilities




English Language Learning (ESL, ELL, ESOL, LEP)  *

Referring and Evaluating English Language Learners for Programs and Services for Children with Special Needs.  A North Carolina School Psychology  Association position paper.  Included in this 23 page document are helpful forms for documenting relevant information regarding the student’s BICS and CALP skills as well as a social history of particular helpfulness in helping teams rule out language as the determining factor in a student’s math and/or reading problems.  (Added January 18, 2018)

Non-Regulatory Guidance: English Learners and Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) September 23, 2016. (October 11, 2016)

“In too many places across the country, English learners get less access to quality teachers, less access to advanced coursework, and less access to the resources they need to succeed. Together, we can change that reality,” said U.S. Secretary of Education John B. King Jr. “Under the Every Student Succeeds Act, we have an opportunity to give students the gift of bilingualism and of multilingualism so they are prepared for college and career with a better sense of themselves, their community, their future, and a better appreciation for our diversity as a country.”

OCR:  Race and National Origin Discrimination August 17, 2016
Policy guidance materials related to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

California English Language Learners August 17, 2016
“There are many programs and services to help students who do not speak, read, write or understand English well as a result of English not being their home language. The overall goal of the various programs is to improve the English language skills of English Learner students, Immigrant students, Migrant students and provide information to their parents about services available.”

OSEP Q and A on Assessing ELL Students (2015)
“The questions and answers included in this document are intended to help States and LEAs address these challenges, and more broadly, to understand how Part B of the IDEA and Titles I and III of the ESEA address the inclusion of ELs with disabilities in annual State ELP assessments. ”

Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services
(C.L.A.S. up to 2003)     Culturally & Linguistically Approp. Services



Ethics *

Note:  Also see Assessment Ethics on this page.

APA Ethical Code
“The American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles and specific Ethical Standards.”  (Amended 2010)

Record Keeping for Private Psychologists
APA guidelines on record keeping.  While not in and of themselves rising to the level of an ethical imperative, in those states that have incorporated these guidelines into their statutes, they would carry the force of law.

Ethics and Malpractice
Links with brief summaries to a variety of resources and articles on ethics.  Examples: “Record Keeping Controversies,” “21 Cognitive Strategies to Justify any Unethical Behavior,” “On Violating Ethical Standards:  20 Easy Steps”

NASP Professional Ethics
Principles for Professional Ethics 2010

APA: 10 Ways Practitioners Can Avoid Ethical Pitfalls
“Boost your ethical know-how with these practical tips on avoiding common ethical quandaries.”

National Conference of State Legislatures: Duty to Warn
“Duty to Warn” statutes for mental health professionals vary from state to state.  This article provides a summary of the requirements in all 50 states.  A good beginning point for any practitioner in either the public or private sector.

Tarasoff: Duty to Warn Clarified
The National Psychologist (2009): ” since the court issued its subsequent ruling in 1976, the ruling now reads that when a therapist determines “… that his patient presents a serious danger of violence to another, he incurs an obligation to use reasonable care to protect the intended victim”

APA Judicial Notebook: Tarasoff Reconsidered (2005)
“The Tarasoff rule has been extended to include threats disclosed by family members.”

Multiple Relationships and APA’s New Ethics Code (2004)
“Multiple relationships that would not reasonably be expected to cause impairment or risk exploitation or harm are not unethical.”

Duel Relationships, Multiple Relationships, Boundary Decisions
The major categories of this section are

  • decision-making guides;
  • excerpts addressing dual relationships and multiple relationships from the standards and guidelines of professional associations;
  • quotes and Information about boundaries in therapy & counseling from articles, books, & studies;
  • articles on dual relationships, multiple relationships, and other boundary topics; and
  • related resources

APA Approved Online CEU Providers
Although professional licensing boards require documentation of continuing education units to maintain professional licensure, those hours can be obtained through on-line services providers, usually at considerably less expense than would be incurred through attendance at conferences or workshops . . . in fact, usually for less money than the cost of gasoline used to arrive and return.  The link above is to a listing of APA approved service providers, all of whom provide courses in ethics.  Check with your state licensing board to insure the acceptability of these units.

Ewing v. Goldstein, CA Court of Appeals, July 16, 2004
Decided for the Plaintiff.  “We agree with the trial court that this information, considered alone, is insufficient to establish that Goldstein was aware that Colello intended to gravely injure Keith.vThis information, however, cannot be viewed in isolation.   The trial court also was required to consider the threat Colello shared with his father, which the father communicated to Goldstein.   If a fact finder, viewing this evidence and Goldstein’s conduct, believed Colello’s father told the therapist about his son’s stated intentions to do physical violence, it could conclude Goldstein had sufficient information to trigger his duty to warn.”

The Two Ewing Cases and Tarasoff (2005)
“Although the Ewing cases discussed herein refer to a “duty to warn,” a psychotherapist’s obligation when faced with a situation where his or her patient is likely to be violent towards others, pursuant to the original Tarasoff decision, is more properly regarded as a “duty to protect.””

Elliot v. North Carolina Psychology Board, NC Court of Appeals, 1997
Decision:  for the Psychology Board.   Not exactly a landmark case, but nevertheless illustrative of the factors a court might consider when a board decision based on the APA Ethical Code is challenged in an appeal to that court.



Fetal Alcohol Syndrome *

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
NOFAS:  “Alcohol and Pregnancy. No safe amount. No safe time. No safe alcohol. Period.”

WedMD: What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
“In the case of FAS, the signs and symptoms are birth defects that result from a woman’s use of alcohol during her pregnancy. Among their symptoms, children with FAS may grow less quickly than other children, have facial abnormalities and have problems with their central nervous systems

KidsHealth: FASfas2
“When a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy, she risks giving birth to a child who will pay the price — in mental and physical deficiencies — for his or her entire life.”

MedlinePlus: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders
“Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages before you even know you are pregnant. Drinking alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).”

CDC: Facts about FASDs
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):  “Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects can include physical problems and problems with behavior and learning. Often, a person with an FASD has a mix of these problems.”

FAS: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis
CDC: “This document represents the deliberations of clinicians, researchers, parents, and representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations, whose main goals were to increase the identification of individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) using uniform criteria, and to improve the delivery of appropriate services to those individuals and their families. These new guidelines will help achieve those goals by educating medical and allied health professionals about FAS.”


free-signFree Listservs, Subscriptions, and Groups *

School Psychologists Listserv
Subscribe: Send blank email to School-Psychology-Listserv-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
home page: School Psychology Listserv Home Page

Justia Court Decisions
Free Summaries of Court Decisions in Education law (or any area of practice) from Justia.  Clicking the boxes next to each circuit will bring daily summaries on ALL cases decided by that Circuit; clicking on the weekly Education Practice option will only bring summaries (and links) to cases involving Education law.

Institute for Applied Psychometrics
Subscribe: IAPCHC-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
home page: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/IAPCHC
Web site: Institute for Applied Psychometrics Home Page

Subscribe to Report Comments newsletter for evaluators
archived here and at http://www.asaif.net/

National Council for Learning Disabilities free email for parents of children with learning and attentional issues.    Sign up for Understood.org can be accessed at link below.  (Opens 8/1/2014)
Understood.org Home Page

Disability Scoop Newsletter
Subscribe to Disability Scoop newsletter by clicking on “Email Setup” in the header

Parents, Let’s United for Kids
Subscribe to free sped news feeds; although the scope of articles is broad, the emphasis is on new developments/research in educating children with autism.

Council for Exceptional Children Smart Brief
Subscribe to Council for Exceptional Children Smart Brief

Subscribe to Wrightslaw.com Newsletter
Subscribe to the Special Ed Advocate newsletter

It's all fun and games...:


Functional Behavioral Assessments and Positive Behavior Supports  *

Practical Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Manual for School-Based Personnel
PBIS.ORG: “This participant’s guide presents specific procedures for school-based personnel to conduct practical functional behavioral assessments (FBA). ”

Functional Behavioral Assessment
IDEAPartnership.Org:  “A functional behavior assessment is a comprehensive and individualized strategy to: • Identify the purpose or function of a student’s problem behavior(s). • Develop and implement a plan to modify variables that maintain the problem behavior. • Teach appropriate replacement behaviors using positive interventions.”

Functional Behaavior Assessments and Positive Interventions: What Parents Need to Know
Wrightslaw article:  “We can teach appropriate behavior skills to children! To do so, we need to understand problem behaviors, such as where they occur and what purpose they serve for a child.”

Postive Behavior Supports (NASP)
“PBS can target an individual student or an entire school, as it does not focus exclusively on the student, but also includes changing environmental variables such as the physical setting, task demands, curriculum, instructional pace and individualized reinforcement”

Behavior Assessment, Plans, and Positive Support
Center for Parent Information and Resources:   “The CPIR is pleased to focus this page in the Behavior Suite on these three elements:  conducting behavioral assessments, developing behavior plans, and providing positive behavior supports.  The resources we’ve listed below aren’t exhaustive of all those available, but they will certainly get you started and connect you with lots of other useful information.

Virginia DOE:  “School divisions are required to conduct FBAs and implement BIPs for students who have been subject to disciplinary actions where the conduct was determined to be a manifestation of the student’s disability. ”





General Education *

To Become a Teacher
Tobecomeateacher.org was built by a collaborative team of educational and career experts who focus their efforts on providing students of all levels with factual resources that will help them navigate the educational and career hurdles required to achieve their professional goals. This website was developed with the future and existing teacher in mind – to be a hub of educational and career tips and advice from fellow teachers and career guidance experts who have traveled on this journey themselves.”  July 18, 2016

Scientifically Based Research
Lianro WagenerSmith’s references and resources

ABC Resources
A B C Teach resources for teachers

AFT Home Page
American Federation of Teachers: many links for educators

AHEAD Home Page
Association. on Higher Ed.ucation and Disability.  “Committed to full participation of persons with disabilities in postsecondary education.”

Library for Kids
Awesome Library for Kids links

Beloit Mindset 
Knowledge base of college freshmen

Common Core Standards
Link to Common Core reading & math standards

The Master Teacher Home Page
Behavior management from The Master Teacher

Teacher Resources
Foundation for Child Development (FCD)

Free Resources for Civic Learning
Civics games and activities

Intervention Central: instruction and behavior ideas.   “Intervention Central provides teachers, schools and districts with free resources to help struggling learners and implement Response to Intervention and attain the Common Core Standards.”

iowa AEA Procedures Manual
Iowa AEA sped procedures manual

Khan Academy
Learn almost anything, completely free, forever

The Learning Page Home Page
Commercial teaching materials, some free samples

NAEYC Home Page
National  Association for the Education Of Young Children

National. Association of State Directors of Special Educucation

NEA Home Page                                                       .
National Education Association (NEA)

Northwest Regional Education Libraryl
Northwest Regional Education. Library

New Horizons (John Hopkins)
New Horizons for Learning Johns Hopkins Univ.

Project Read
Project Read

The Resource Room
The Resource Room information for teachers

Many More Links
Many links – University of Wisconsin Waisman Center

What Works Clearinghouse
U.S. Department of Education  What Works Clearinghouse (WWC).  “The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) was established in 2002 as an initiative of the Institute for Education Sciences (IES) at the U.S. Department of Education. The WWC is administered by the National Center for Education Evaluation within IES.  The goal of the WWC is to be a resource for informed education decision making.”

Ennis Cosby memorial with good Rx’s for teachers in the areas of autism, ADHD and dyslexia



Gifted *

Institute for Research and Policy on Acceleration
Grade acceleration for gifted children

New Hampshire Gifted and Talented Regs
NH regulations for gifted children

Gifted Development Center Home Page
Gifted Development Center

Hoagies Gifted Home Page
Hoagie’s Gifted Education Page

Indiana University Links to Tests for the Gifted
Links to tests

New Hampshire Association for Gifted Education
New Hampshire Association for Gifted Education

NAGC Home Page
National Association for Gifted Children

Wrightslaw: Twice Exceptional Children
Gifted Children with Special Educational Needs



History *

A History of School Psychology
A brief history of school psychology from the NY Association of School Psychologists

A History of Psychology
A history of psychology provided by About.com

Encycolpoedia of Psychology:  Includes  brief biographies and summaries of their theories

Smithsonian History of Disability
Smithsonian Artifact History of Disability in USA

1904 Stanford Binet (French)
1904 Binet-Simon

History of the Stanford Binet
Stanford-Binet History by Kirk Becker



Homework Help and Other Materials for Students (and evaluators) *

Free Mind Main Page
Free, open-source mind-mapping software

Dictionary and Thesaurus
Merriam-Webster Dictionary & Thesaurus

Inspiration App
Software for graphic organizers and visual tools (Paid Apps)

Washington Univ. College Survival Skills
Study tips

Dartmouth University Reading Tips
Reading  myths, active reading strategies

testing (1)


Information on Specific Tests *

For more detailed information on specific tests, see the drop down menu for  Test Info or click on Links to Other Test Tools Pages

Differential Ability Scales II
DAS-II information

Northwest Evaluation Association Home Page
Northwest Evaluation Association NWEA MAP

WISC IV Resources
WISC-IV Technical Reports, etc.

WAIS IV Information
WAIS-IV information

WPPSI IV Information

APA information on finding tests

ASHA Directory of Speech/Language Tests
Information on many speech and language tests

Stanford Binet Ordering Information, Bulletins
Stanford-Binet Assessment Service Bulletins

WJ III Order Information and Additional Resources
WJ III Assessment Service Bulletins

RIAS PowerPoint
RIAS PowerPoint


Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities *

How Can a Person’s Reading Score be Higher than Their IQ
John Willis’s super simple explanation  of predicting achievement based on IQ.  July 16, 2016.

Mental Retardation: Determining SSA Eligibility
A free download of a 2002 book that is still useful; but see Rosa’s Law and the SSA Blue Book for updated information

Rosa’s Law
Act of Congress officially changing the term “mental retardation” to “intellectual disability” in all federal legislation and regulations

Forest Gump and IQ Expectations
Why IQ scores are poor predictors of individual achievement

SSA Childhood Criteria for Mental Disorders
See Section 112.05 for SSA Eligibility Criteria for Intellectual Disability

AAIDD Home Page
American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities seeks to enhance the capacity of disability professionals and to participate in the development of a fully inclusive society.

AAID Definition of Intellectual Disability
Definition of Intellectual Disability; has served in part or whole as the basis for many federal and state definitions

New Hampshire Council on Developmental Disabilities
NH Council on Developmental Disabilities

Think College Home Page
College for students with intellectual disabilities

The ARC Home Page
The ARC.  “We are the largest national community-based organization advocating for and serving people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families”

The Waisman Center Home Page
University of Wisconsin Waisman Center.


Down Syndrome *

Several states, Pennsylvania being the latest, have passed laws requiring physicians to provide parents with information on Down’s Syndrome when diagnostic testing identifies the genetic defect.  The following links are intended to supplement whatever information may be provided by those states.  Down Syndrome Law Stirs Debate

Mayo Clinic: Down Syndrome
“Better understanding of Down syndrome and early interventions can greatly increase the quality of life for children and adults with this disorder and help them live fulfilling lives”

DSEO: Mental health, behaviour and intellectual abilities of people with Down syndrome
“The mental health, adaptive behaviour and intellectual abilities of people with Down syndrome (n=129) were evaluated in a population-based survey of social and health care records.”

CDC: Facts About Down Syndrome
“Down syndrome remains the most common chromosomal condition diagnosed in the United States. Each year, about 6,000 babies born in the United States have Down syndrome. This means that Down syndrome occurs in about 1 out of every 700 babies”

NADS Home Page
National Association for Down Syndrome.  “Since its inception in 1961 NADS has always believed that parents helping parents is a very powerful concept and most parents find that some of their greatest resources are other parents.”  Primarily serves the Chicago Metropolitan Area

Scitable: Trisomy 21 Causes Down Syndrome “A century after Down syndrome was first described, scientists discovered that the root cause of this disorder is a condition called trisomy 21. What strides in research have been made since then?”


The National Advocate for People with Down Syndrome since 1979
“The mission of the National Down Syndrome Society is to be the national advocate for the value, acceptance and inclusion of people with Down syndrome.”



Law and Government *

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (federal ADAAA resources)

Yahoo Web Group: IEP Guide
Two Web pages with extensive special education

Yahoo Listserv on Special Education
Information for parents and advocates

National Center for Education Statistics
National Center for Education Statistics

Final Regulations on Parent Consent (IDEA 2004)
Final Regulations related to parental consent for the use of public benefits or insurance

United States Access Board Home Page
Section 508 information (technology accessibility)

United States Census Bureau
Population data

Living with Disability
Federal Resource Center for Special Education

United States Department of Education Home Page
US Department of Education Home Page

U.S. Dept. of Education Office for Civil Rights Home Page

OCR FAQ on Section 504
FAQ about Section 504

OCR Rights Handout
OCR Know your Rights under 504

OCR Reading Room
Office of Civil Rights Reading Room guidance on Title VI, IX, the ADA, and Section 504

Preparing Students for Post Secondary Transition
Office of Civil Rights on post-secondary transition

NCLB federal guidance
U.S. Dept. of Ed.: No Child Left Behind (ESEA)

OCR report on High Stakes Testing (archived)
OCR on high stakes testing

OSEP Resources for Families
DOE Technical Assistance & Dissemination

FPCO Home Page
Family Policy Compliance Office (FPCO)

FERPA and HIPAA Guidance (Joint Memo)
Joint FERPA & HIPAA Guidance from the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the United States Department of Education

Recent Changes Affecting FERPA and the PPRARecent changes in FERPA and the PPRA.

Protection of Pupil Rights Act information

504 Regulations (Dept. of Education)
Section 504 Regulations

FCC Telecom Fact Sheet
FCCTelecom Relay Services Fact Sheet

FCC Telecommunications Relay Service
FCC TRS and 711 phone no. guide

Legal references

Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations

HIPAA information: federal medical privacy

LRP Home Page
Special ed. law, IDEA

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition
NCSET analyses of IDEIA w/ emphasis on transition

Penn. Training and Technical Assistance Network

Parents Lets United for Kids
Subscribe to free sped news feed

Section 508 Guidance
Section 508 technology accessibility rules

Southern Poverty Law Center
Southern Poverty Law Center – antidiscrimination
Americans with Disabilities Act page

What Works Clearinghouse
U.S.D.O.E. What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

Excellent parent-oriented sped law web site

Free Summaries of Court Decisions in Education law (or any area of practice) from Justia



Learning Disabilities  (Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia) *


Also see: ReadingMathWriting, and our pages on Dyslexia, and Specific Learning Disabilities

A Response to the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) White Paper on Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) Identification (see next link below) 
“Our consortium of experts is expressing concern that the LDA White Paper may, indeed, be
used to ‘provide guidance’ but, if heeded, would work against the interest of large numbers of
America’s children. We contend that schools nationwide who are working diligently to advance
evidence-based early intervention efforts may be distracted, at best, by efforts to ensure specific
learning disabilities (SLD) eligibility based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses
(PSW) without sufficient evidence of efficacy.”

LDA White Paper on SLD

” ThisWhite Paper project was undertaken to address the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) concerns regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004 statutory and regulatoryrequirements for the identification of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD), and the subsequent U. S. Department of Education Final Regulations and Commentary regarding implementation of IDEIA (34 CFR Parts 300 and 301;Federal Register, 2006).  ”

The IDEA delegated the power to provide an operational definition of specific learning disabilities to each state.  While the public agencies in each state are required to apply those procedures, each state’s operational definition will in some ways be unique to that state.  Contact the SEA in your state for those criteria (see State Regulations )

Academic Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities
As the number of individuals being diagnosed with learning disabilities has increased, so have the understanding and utilization of academic and technological strategies for accommodation. There are a number of things instructors can do while planning a course to make it more accessible to all students, including those with learning disabilities. Proactively consider these strategies is part of a process called universal design (UD).   (July 15, 2016)


Rethinking Learning Disabilities for the 21st Century
Published by the Thomas B. Foundation and Progressive Policy Institute  in 2001, this paper was influential in providing a foundation for change in how SLD is identified.

2004 Learning Disabilities Roundtable Report
A consensus state prepared by major stakeholders including the National Association of School Psychologists, the Association of Educational Therapists, the Association of Speech-Language Hearing Association, the Association for Higher Learning and Education and Disability, the Council for Exceptional Children, the Council for Learning Disabilties, the Learning Disabilities Association, the International Dyslexia Association, the International Reading Association, the National Association of State Directors for Special Education, the National Association for the Education of African Americans with Learning Dissabilities, and the National Center for Learning Disabilities

All Kinds of Minds
Mel Levine on learning differences

Children & Adults with ADD

International Dyslexia Association
International Dyslexia Association

LDA Home Page
Learning Disabilities Assoc. of America.  “LDA Visualizes a World in Which: all individuals with learning disabilities are empowered to thrive and participate fully in society; the incidence of learning disabilities is reduced; and learning disabilities are universally understood and effectively addressed. LDA’s mission is to create opportunities for success for all individuals affected by learning disabilities and to reduce the incidence of learning disabilities in future generations.”

LD Online Home Page
LD Online,  “The site features hundreds of helpful articles, multimedia, monthly columns by noted experts, first person essays, children’s writing and artwork, a comprehensive resource guide, very active forums, and a Yellow Pages referral directory of professionals, schools, and products.”

LDA Affiliates
Local Affiliates of the LDA

NCLD Home Page
National Center for Learning Disabilities

Neuropsychology Central

Nonverbal Learning Disorder on the WebNonverbal learning disorder

Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital Resources
Vanderbilt University resources

Word Finding Difficulties
Word Finding Web site

here was a response to this paper in 2010 by a number of noted researchers.  In their prefatory remarks to their “take” on this controversial issue, they wrote ” We assert that these scholars are not representative of the field of special education, especially SLD, and, in fact, represent a narrow bias toward cognitive PSW. Furthermore, when specific practices are advocated as public policy by experts, we believe any such recommendations should be able to be evaluated by the reader based on transparency. In the LDA White Paper, potential conflicts of interest were not possible because there were no disclosure efforts.”

Also see on this website Specific Learning Dissabilties for some additional references



Math  *

MFaCTS Combo — Assessment for grades 1 – 12, 15 to 20 minutes administration time.  (Added 4/14/2016)
Assesses math fluency and math calculation skills and is closely aligned to the national curriculum.

Dream Box Math “DreamBox Learning© Math offers a research-based  on-line math intervention program for students identified as struggling with math or who require additional academic support.  Use DreamBox Learning independently, in small groups, or with instructors to overcome math challenges at each of the three Tiers.

Dr. Math
FAQs about math; send in questions to Dr. Math

Illuminations: Resource for Teaching Math
NCTM Illuminations – standards, lessons, links

National Council of Math Teachers
Nat. Council of Teachers of Math (NCTM) Standards

AAA Math Home Page
Math instruction and practice

Kumon Math
Kumon math

Math Stories
Math word problems

Math Worksheets Land
Julia Leonard’s thousands of free math worksheets, etc.  (Aligned with Common Core)

Dave’s Math Tables
Dave’s Math Tables



Medical Information *

Drug Side Effects
The website above also provides a quick an easy way to identify common drug side effects,  School psychologists may defensibly cut and paste those into an evaluation, with a caution to parents and teachers to report them if observed to their medical provider.  “A side effect is usually regarded as an undesirable secondary effect which occurs in addition to the desired therapeutic effect of a drug or medication.”  Side effects can also adversely affect educational performance or, in and of themselves, cause a substantial limitation resulting from a disability.

RxList – The Internet Drug Index
Another reliable source for side effect information on common (and some uncommon) drugs

WebMD Drugs and Medical Information
One more excellent site for searching for and finding information on what drugs are used to treat and what their side effects might be

“Substance abuse among young adults is hardly new, but behavior experts believe the progression of prescription drug overdoses, in addition to a spike in binge drinking, borders on alarming for today’s college-age students.”  Also relevant to  middle and high school students.

Family Doctor
American Academy of Family Physicians

Health Library
EBSCO Health Library

Best of the Web Health Information 
“Best of the Web” health information

National Health and Nutrition Survey
Center for Disease Control

Center Watch: Cllinical Trials
Information on helping people connect with clinical trials

Children with Diabetes
Children with Diabetes

Drug Information
Drug information on over 23,000 prescription medications

Drug Interaction Checker
Drug interactions

Drug Watch
Warnings and alerts about drugs and devices

Epilepsy Foundation Home Page

Food Allergy Research and Education
Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network

Links to many health-related sites

Health on Net Search Engine
Health On Net Foundation search engine

Mayo Clinic Home Page
Mayo Clinic


PubMed searchable medical databases

U.S. National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine

NIH Medline Plus
National Library of Medicine “easy-access site”

Guide to Health Fraud
Stephen Barrett, MD, Guide to Health Fraud

RX List
Internet Drug Index

Stanford Univ.: Childhood Sleep Apnea
Childhood Sleep Apnea

Set up a Web page to post updates about a hospital patient’s condition and a bulletin board to post messages to the patient and family.  Great service.


Memory Assessments *

Test of Memory and Learning — Second Edition.   (Added 4/14/2016)
“The TOMAL-2 includes 8 core subtests, 6 supplementary subtests, and 2 delayed recall tasks that evaluate general and specific memory functions; features composite memory scores for Verbal Memory, Nonverbal Memory, and a Composite Memory Index; has supplementary composite scores that include a Verbal Delayed Recall Index, Learning Index, Attention and Concentration Index, Sequential Memory Index, Free Recall Index, and an Associate Recall Index”

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning — Second Edition   (Added 4/14/2016)
“The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning–Second Edition (WRAML-2) is a revision of the popular WRAML. The WRAML-2 covers the age range 5 through 90, allowing users to become familiar with memory function and dysfunction across development and alleviates the need for two different memory tests to accommodate adults and children. The Core Battery consists of only 6 (2 Verbal, 2 Visual, and 2 Attention-Concentration) subtests and provides an overview of memory functioning. It requires well under an hour to administer; a 4-subtest Memory Screening measure is also available.”

how I feel


Mood Disorders *

Also see: Anxiety Disorders

Depression in Children
“This site is Internet’s central clearinghouse for information on all types of depressive disorders and on the most effective treatments for individuals suffering from Major Depression, Manic-Depression (Bipolar Disorder), Cyclothymia, Dysthymia and other mood disorders.”

WebMD: Mood Disorders
“What you may not know is that two milder versions of these mood disorders can also take a toll, and can go undiagnosed. These are calleddysthymic disorder and cyclothymic disorder

MedlinePlus: Mood Disorders
“Mood disorders can increase a person’s risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. With treatment, most people with mood disorders can lead productive lives.”

NIMH: Any Mood Disorder
“Mood disorders represent a category of mental disorders in which the underlying problem primarily affects a person’s persistent emotional state (their mood). The statistics below, derived from the National Comorbidity Survey – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) , represent 13 to 17 year olds experiencing major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and/or bipolar disorder.”

Medscape: Pediatric Affective Bipolar Disorder
“Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which feelings, thoughts, behaviors, and perceptions are altered in the context of episodes of mania anddepression. Previously known as manic depression, bipolar disorder was once thought to occur rarely in youth. However, approximately 20% ofadults with bipolar disorder had symptoms beginning in adolescence.

Mood Disorders and ADHD
Healthychildren.org:  “The mood disorders most likely to be experienced by children with ADHD include dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder.”



MTSS Wheel


Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) *

Also see Section on Curriculum Based Assessment above and under Spedlaw/State Regulations, Part B, see the RTI links for each state.

National Center on Intensive Intervention

MTSS, RTI, Special Education — Fuchs and Jenkins
“The essential components of MTSS are as follows: screening, progress monitoring, a multilevel prevention system, and data-based decision making (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010)”

Intensive intervention helps students with severe and persistent learning or behavioral needs. The Center’s approach to intensive intervention isdata-based individualization (DBI)”

The Iris Center

Evidence Based Practice Summaries
“These summaries of research about the effectiveness of instructional strategies and interventions contain links to research reports and include information about an intervention’s level of effectiveness and the age groups for which it is designed.”

Sample Professional Development Activity Collection
“Our Sample Professional Development (PD) Activity Collection is designed to serve as a resource to PD providers creating training events both for practicing educators and beginning teachers engaged in induction experiences.”


CEEDER Center Home
“CEEDAR stands for “Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability and Reform.” We help states and institutes of higher education reform their teacher and leader preparation programs, revise licensure standards to align with reforms, refine personnel evaluation systems, and realign policy structures and professional learning systems.”

MTSS Connected Educator Video
Transforming Education Preparation Through CEEDAR efforts, leveraging MTSS as a Means to Prepare and Support Teachers in Meeting the Needs of ALL Students.”

Center on Response to Intervention

Center on Response to Intervention
“Response to Intervention integrates assessment and intervention within a multi‐level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems.”

Self Paced Learning Modules
“The Center developed a series of self-paced learning modules for implementers of Response to Intervention (RTI). The learning modules are intended to provide foundational knowledge about the essential components of RTI and to build an understanding about the importance of RTI implementation. They were adapted from theRTI Implementer Series Training Modules upon which they are based.1

Training Modules
“Training Modules can be used for self learning as well as shared in professional development settings to increase the understanding of RTI among all staff. Modules should be delivered by a trained, knowledgeable professional. These training modules are designed to be a component of comprehensive professional development that includes supplemental coaching and ongoing support.”

RTI in Secondary Schools
“This collection of resources is specific to RTI implementation at the middle and high school levels. As a result of revisions to the website, links embedded within documents may no longer be correct. To ensure you are able to access supplemental or related materials search by the title of the document on the website.”

National Center on Intensive Intervention

Training in Data Based Individualization
“This series of training modules developed by the National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) is aimed at district or school teams involved in initial planning or implementation of data-based individualization (DBI) as a framework for providing intensive intervention in academics and behavior. ”

Making Intensive Interventions Happen
“NCII presented a strand at Center for Exceptional Children (CEC) 2015 Convention and Expo. The strand, How Can We Make Intensive Intervention Happen?  Considerations for Knowledge Development, Implementation, and Policy, address the range of issues schools and districts encounter as they attempt to implement intensive intervention—knowledge and skills, systems to support and evaluate implementation, and policy context. ”

A Family Guide to MTSS
“This booklet reviews the basic components of any MTSS process and includes questions you might want to ask your child’s school to learn more about their MTSS process. Also included are ways you can get involved in the process and what to do and where to go if you have questions or concerns. ”




Muscular Dystrophy *

MDA K-12 Educational Resources k-12.
Explores the different educational accommodations that may be needed based on the particular diagnosis. Recommends assessing for the child’s needs for accommodations.

MDA Accommodation Recommendations for Duchenne muscular dystropy.
Discusses physical therapy, occupational therapy, adaptive physical education

Diagnosis: Duchenne Muscular  Dystrophy (DMD)
Same handout as above but in PDF format.

Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy
A 39 page publication with resources for both parents and teachers

Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy:  Recommended Assessment
Every child with muscular dystroophy is going to be as unique as the other children in his or her classroom.  This online resource recommends screenings that may suggest further evaluations necessary to complete a sufficiently comprehensive evaluation.

6 Educational Resources from the MDA.
In addition to providing a brief overview of resources for parents, this web page allows concerned parties to sign up for a free weekly newsletter.


Office for Civil Rights *

See our Spedlaw/Section 504, ADA, and OCR web pageTitle VI web page , and Title IX web page. as well as some additional links on this page under Law and Government *

Office for Civil Rights Home Page

OCR’s mission is to ensure equal access to education and to promote educational excellence through vigorous enforcement of civil rights in our nation’s schools.
Find out More




Also see our web page Spedlaw/OSEP and OSERS Guidance 

OSEP Home Page
“The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts.”

OSEP Memos, Dear Colleague Letters and Policy Letters
 “OSEP provides information, guidance and clarification regarding implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act(IDEA) in a number of ways including OSEP Memos and Dear Colleague Letters, and OSEP Policy Letters”



Orthopedic Impairments *

Remodeling for Special Needs
“This guide will identify legal and financial resources available to citizens, seniors, and veterans, offer tips to hire the right home remodeler, and suggest modifications throughout the home to make the space as accommodating as possible.”  Some of the information therein would also be applicable to children with disabilities.

SATH Home Page
Society  for Accessible Travel and Hospitality

Orthopedic Impairments for Teachers
“The purpose of this project is to design a comprehensive website for parents, teachers, and students on Orthopedic Impairments.”  Includes some links to additional resources

Online Guide to Becoming a Phyical Therapy Assistant
Physical Therapy Aide

Mobility International USA
Mobility International: exchange programs



Other Health Impairments *

Also see: Tourette Syndrome

Also see:  Muscular Dystrophy

CPIR Resources on Lead Poisoning  (11/26/2017)
“This short resource page provides a brief overview of lead poisoning and connections to sources of additional information.  It accompanies a longer fact sheet on Other Health Impairment”  A useful resource for both Part B and Part C service providers.

The following five links provide information on Angelman’s Syndrome (July 28 2016)

NORD:  Angelman’s Syndrome.  (7/28/16)
“Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic and neurological disorder characterized by severe developmental delays and learning disabilities; absence or near absence of speech; inability to coordinate voluntary movements (ataxia); tremulousness with jerky movements of the arms and legs and a distinct behavioral pattern characterized by a happy disposition and unprovoked episodes of laughter and smiling.”

Angelman Syndrome Foundation..  7/28/16
“The Angelman Syndrome Foundation’s mission is to advance the awareness and treatment of Angelman syndrome through education and information, research, and support for individuals with Angelman syndrome, their families and other concerned parties. We exist to give all of them a reason to smile, with the ultimate goal of finding a cure.”

Genetics Home Reference:  Angelman’s Syndrome.  7/28/16
“Children with Angelman syndrome typically have a happy, excitable demeanor with frequent smiling, laughter, and hand-flapping movements. Hyperactivity, a short attention span, and a fascination with water are common. Most affected children also have difficulty sleeping and need less sleep than usual.”

Mayo Clinic:  Diseases and Disorders: Angelman Syndrome 7/28/16
“Angelman syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes developmental disabilities and neurological problems, such as difficulty speaking, balancing and walking, and, in some cases, seizures.”

Boston Children’s Hospital.  7/28/2016
Angelman syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that causes developmental and neurological problems, such as severe speech impairment and trouble walking and balancing (ataxia). 7/28/16

The CHARGE Syndrome Foundation Home Page
CHARGE Syndrome Foundation.  “CHARGE syndrome is a recognizable (genetic) pattern of birth defects which occurs in about one in every 9-10,000 births worldwide. It is an extremely complex syndrome, involving extensive medical and physical difficulties that differ from child to child. “

The Charcot Marie Tooth Association Home Page
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome.  “Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, or CMT, is a group of inherited disorders that affect the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. There are more than 70 kinds of CMT. ”


National Organization for Rare Disorders Home Page
NORD listing of rare diseases home page

TASH association for persons with severe disabilities

Waisman Center Home Page
University of Wisconsin Waisman Center.  “Dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about human development, developmental disabilities, and neurodegenerative diseases.”

NASET Other Health Impariments
National Association of Special Education Teachers Topic List for OHI

American Diabetes Association
Safe at School:  American Diabetes Association

Managing Asthma
Managing Asthma:  A Guide for Schools

National Diabetes Education Program
Helping the student with diabetes succeed: Americans with Disabilities Association

EPA: Improving Health in Schools
Improving Health in Schools:  Environmental Protection Agency

Accessible Travel  Travel tips for people needing wheelchairs (and with other disabilities) by Patti Jackson (Wakanow.com Travel Agency)

Birth Injury Guide
A comprehensive resource for families coping with birth trauma.  “At Birth Injury Guide we strive to answer all your questions with the hope that we can help guide you and make your life a little easier if your child or loved one has a b

Minnesota Prader Willi Association
“Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare disorder present at birth that results in a number of physical, mental and behavioral issues.”

University of Illinois: Disability Resources
Links to Instructional Resources  on both physical and psychiatric disabilities.

Also see the links above for  Autoimmune diseases and attention deficit hyperactive disorder

parent advocacy


Parent, Advocacy, Resource, and Support Groups *

Quit Alcohol   (September 9, 2016)
The Dangers of Drinking and Driving.  “Alcohol affects you in a way that changes your judgement, depth perception as well as vital motor skills required to drive safely. Its easy to think you are driving normally when truly you are not.”

Support for Military Families with Children with Disabilities
Support for military families with special needs family members is provided through the Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP).

NICHCY Legacy Resources
NICHCY resources, no longer updated, are maintained in a searchable legacy database by the Center for Parent Information and Resources.

CDC on Preterm Birth
Preterm-related causes of death together accounted for 35% of all infant deaths in 2010, more than any other single cause. Preterm birth is also a leading cause of long-term neurological disabilities in children. Preterm birth costs the U.S. health care system more than $26 billion in 2005.

Regional Parent Training Centers
Regional Parent Training Center  (Provides support to the PTIs, link above.)

State by State Special Education Information
State  education departments for children with special needs

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Information 
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Comm. Resource Center

Yahoo Group IEP 504
Two Web pages with extensive special education

Al-Anon Family Groups
Al-Anon, Alateen

Council of Parent Attorneys and ADvocates
Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates

DisabilitiesSecrets.com Home Page
Social Security Disability Secrets

Gifts from Within for Survivors of Trauma
Gift From Within – survivors of trauma & victimization

Wrightslaw Yellow Pages
Wrightslaw state-by-state listing of parent resources

Kids Together, Inc Home Page
Kids Together, Inc. – support for inclusion

LDonline state by state LD Resources
State-by-state resource listings

Nar Anon
The Nar-Anon Family Groupis primarily for those who know or have known a feeling of desperation concerning the addiction problem of someone very near

Netlingo.com Home Page
Internet acronyms every parent should know

Our-Kids.org Home Page
Our-Kids for parents of children with disabilities

PACER Center Home Page
Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights

NH Parent Information Center
Parent Information Center – New Hampshire

Proactive Parent Home Page
Susan L. Hall and Louisa C. Moats, Ed.D

Sibling Support Project
Sibling Support Project sponsored by ARC

Wrightslaw Home Page
Excellent parent-oriented sped law web site

Image result for primary service provider model

Primary Service Provider  Model *

Note:   the PSP Model has been adopted as a service delivery system by a number of Part C Providers.   For specifics on how this model is being implemented or if it is being implemented in your state, contact your state’s Part C lead agency.   Also see our Spedlaw/ Part C page.

Virginia’s Part C Intervention Program  August 14, 2016
A 17 page overview of Virginia’s Primary Service Program Model

American Physical Therapy Association:  PSP Q and A  August 14, 2016
The PSP Model from a Physical Therapist’s perspective

Crosswalk with NASP Position Statement  8/12/2016

“This document highlights how position statements, resources and literature of various professions working in early intervention supports the early intervention key principles and reflects how these professions’ services align with high quality early intervention practices. It is intended to promote dialogue within the early childhood community about the key principles and provision of high quality early intervention services, which each profession provides within their profession’s scope of practice.”  (Not very specific, however, with respect to the psychologist’s specific role.  Editor)

Exploring Evidence Based Practices  8/12/2016
A review of Wisconsin’s Primary Coaching Model.

The Journey to a Primary Service Provider Model  8/13/2016
A 42 page introduction to the PSP model.  Large print, easy reading.

ASHA:  Frequently Asked Questions by Qualified Early Intervention Service Providers  8/12/2016
A detailed overview of the ethical issues regarding PSP models with guidance that may be relevant to psychologists involved with PSP Models as well.

Early Steps:  Child Medical Services:  The Early Steps Approach  8/12/2016
Includes a brief discussion of ethical considerations on page 1.

Using a Primary Service Provider Approach to Teaming (8/12/2016)
American Physical Therapy Association:  “The primary service provider (PSP) can be anyone who is part of the early intervention team. When the referral is first made to the early intervention program, the team decides which team member is the best match for the child and family. As the IFSP process continues through evaluation, assessment, and multiple conversations with the family, the team learns more about the needs and priorities of the family, the child, and the team members (which also includes the family). They share ideas and suggestions, and discuss who will be the most likely PSP. ”

Using Primary Service Providers and Coaching in Early Intervention Programs   8/12/2016
Kansas University Center on Developmental Disabilities.  “A primary service provider model uses a transdisciplinary process but details the role of this primary service provider team member.”

Primary Service Provider — What does That Mean  (8/112/2016
Early Interventions for Success Blog.  “The PSP is the team member who will be the family’s primary contact for EI services. This means that, while there may be more than one service listed on the IFSP, the PSP is the person who will see the family most often.”

Connecticut Birth to Three  (8/12/2016)
Connecticut’s PSP Model






Psychology and Psychiatry Organizations *

American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association (APA)

APA State, Provincial, and Territorial Associations
APA state, provincial, territorial associations

International School Psychology Association
International School Psychology Association

American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association (APA)



Publishers and Book Sellers *

Comparison shopping for books.  “Save your TIME and MONEY with AddALL.com in your book shopping.”

Academic Press
Academic Press.  “Academic Press has been a leading publisher of scientific books for 70 years.    It is best known throughout the international scientific community for the superior quality content of its publications, and of its extensive list of renowned authors, all leading experts in the scientific world, including Nobel Prize winners and honored scientific researchers.”

Academic Therapy
Academic Therapy.  “ATP is a publisher and distributor of assessments and resources for speech, language, occupational therapists, rehabilitation specialists, school psychologists, special education personnel, remedial reading teachers and others. ”

Amazon: commercial book seller.   Many professional books are available at below the publishers’ list price.

Achenbach System
“The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) offers a comprehensive approach to assessing adaptive and maladaptive functioning. “

Paperbacks for Educators
Discount Paperbacks for Educators

Barnes and Noble
Barnes and Noble: commercial book seller

Best Web Buys
Comparison shopping for books on line

Books, including out of print

Canadian Test Centre
Canadian Test Centre (Insight)

“A proven, research-based intervention solution, Earobics directly impacts reading achievement in pre-K through third grade. Based on more than 20 years of research and practice in schools across the country, Earobics’ unique instructional design provides a diverse, differentiated approach to literacy suited to each student’s individual needs.”   Sometimes cited as a less expensive alternative to more costly programs like Fast ForWord.

College Books Direct
Used textbooks

Elsevier: Journal of School Psych., etc.

EPS Literacy and Intervention/
Educators Publishing Service

Educational Testing Service Home Page
Educational Testing Service

Pearson Assessment
Pearson Assessmentr

Houhgton Mifflin Home Page
Houghton Mifflin

Jessica Kingsley, Publishers
Jessica Kingsley Publishers (social/behavioral sciences)

Lindamood Bell Home PageLindamood-Bell.  “Lindamood-Bell® research-validated instruction in reading, comprehension and math is the foundation of our successful school partnerships”

Learning Ally Home Page
Learning Ally (was Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic)  “Learning Ally services are limited to individuals with documented learning disabilities, vision impairment, or physical disabilities that impede the ability to process standard print”  (Not for free)

Linguisystems Home Page
LinguiSystems.   Recently acquired by Pro-Ed, this website also provides free downloads  for speech language pathologists as well as commericial (“not for free”) instructional materials

MHS Home Page
Multi-Health Systems  “Multi-Health Systems Inc. (MHS) serves clients in educational, clinical, corporate, public safety, government, military, pharmaceutical, and research settings.”

My Simon
Comparison shopping for books on line

National Academic Press
National Academy Press.  “We offer more than 4,000 titles in PDF format. All of these PDFs can be downloaded for free by the chapter or the entire book”. Our frequently asked questions guide answers questions about accessing our digital content”

PAR, INC Home Page
PAR (Psychological Assessment Resources).”We offer products in an array of assessment formats, including print materials, software, apps, and online testing materials, developed to meet the needs of professionals in psychology, mental health, counseling, education, forensics, pharmaceutical product development, and career counseling..”

PRO-Ed, Inc Home Page

Research Publisher
Research Publisher, book publisher

Houghtin Mifflin Harcourt

Jerome Sattler, Publisher
Jerome Sattler

Sopris West
Tests and materials for at-risk students; IEP program

Wiley Home Page

Wiley Book Fair
Wiley list of new books by course topic

WPS PublishersWestern Psychological Services



Reading *

Also see the myschoolpsychology.com web page on Disabilities/Specific Learning

National Reading Panel.
“In 1997, Congress asked the NICHD, through its Child Development and Behavior Branch, to work with the U.S. Department of Education (ED) in establishing a National Reading Panel that would evaluate existing research and evidence to find the best ways of teaching children to read.”

NCLD – The Dyslexia Toolkit
“Much ofwhat happens in a classroom is based on reading and writing. So it’s important to identify dyslexia as early as possible. Using alternate learning methods, people with dyslexia can achieve success.”


OSERS Letter on Dyslexia 10 23 2015

“The purpose of this letter is to clarify that there is nothing in the IDEA that would prohibit the use of the terms dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia in IDEA evaluation, eligibility determinations, or IEP documents.”

“MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach® (MVRC) is an effective online reading program.   It utilizes innovative technology to improve reading skills quickly and efficiently.”  Claims interventions for Tiers II and III.

Wilson Reading System
 “As a structured literacy program based on phonological-coding research and Orton-Gillingham principles, WRS directly and systematically teaches the structure of the English language.”

The Official DIBELS Home Page

Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Dowloads
Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale

Oregon Reading First
Oregon Reading First

Teaching IS Rocket Science (AFT)Teaching Reading is Rocket Science Louisa C. Moats

Reading First
Reading First resources from the United States Department of Education

Florida Center for Reading Research
Florida Center for Reading Research

Get Ready to Read
Get Ready to Read! (GRTR!) national initiative

International Children’s Library
U. Maryland International Children’s Digital Library

The International Dyslexia Association
International Dyslexia Association

Learning Ally
Learning Ally (was Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic)

NH Learning Resources
Assessment, tutoring, consultation, art therapy


NH Branch of the International Dyslexia Association

Proactive Parent Home Page
Susan L. Hall and Louisa C. Moats, Ed.D

International Reading Association
International Reading Association

Read Naturally
Products and information, e.g., reading fluency tables

Reading is Fundamental
Reading is Fundamental

SEDL Resources (Home)
SEDL Southwest Educational Development Lab

Reading A to Z
Reading A-Z educational links

Commercial reading software for hand-held computers




Response to Intervention Resources *

Every state has its own resources and guidelines on how to implement what is popularly known as RTI.   We have links to most of those resources on our Spedlaw/State Regulations (click here) page.  Since the passage of the IDEA 2004, however, a number of independent websites have popped up providing educators with a wealth of information to draw upon . . . and all of it free.  A selection of those websites follows in no particular order:

Edutopia:  Response to Intervention:  Resources for Educators.  “Over the past decade, Response to Intervention (RTI) has seen widespread use in schools as an effective way to promote student learning. Originally developed to help students with learning disabilities, RTI’s success has led to its use for all students at a school, not just for those with specialized needs.”  A collection of over 25 links.
RTI Action Network:  K-5 Resources.  “Most RTI programs have been implemented at the elementary level. There are a number of informational resources and tools available to guide those who wish to establish or strengthen an RTI program in grades K-5.”
RTI Wire.  “ To implement RTI effectively, schools must develop a specialized set of tools and competencies, including a structured format for problem-solving, knowledge of a range of scientifically based interventions that address common reasons for school failure, and the ability to use various methods of assessment to monitor student progress in academic and behavioral areas.” Jim Wright’s web page.  More than 20 links to specific resources by topic.
Center on Response to Intervention:  “The Center on Response to Intervention, in collaboration with the National Center on Intensive Intervention, has established a standard process to evaluate the scientific rigor of commercially available tools and interventions that can be used in an MTSS/RTI context.”
Center for Parent Information and Resources; Response to Intervention.   A parent friendly explanation of RTI.  “This webpage synthesizes what we know about RTI, provides access to RTI-related information, and discusses RTI from the perspective of people directly involved in the RTI process.”
RTI Snart Tutor.  “10 useful sites.”
Wisconsin RTI Center:  Resources for Your Multilevel System of Supports In Mathematics.  Although much of the information is specific to Wisconsin procedurally, the mathematics section is generically applicable within the context of any model.
Pearson:  Response to Intervention Resources.  Links to national resources and two white papers on RTI.
Above links added July 7, 2017,

Image result for recorded books

Recorded Books *

American Federation for the Blind   (Added 8/9/2017)
Mainstream Recorded and Audio Books


Blackstone Audio
Unabridged rentals and sales

Learning Ally
Learning Ally (was Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic)

Recorded Books
Unabridged rentals and sales

Texas School for the Blind and Visually Handicapped
Carol Evans: paper on Audio Assisted Reading


Success and failure symbol represented by a forked road with a road sign representing Failing and another successfulness with arrows for turning in the direction that is chosen after facing the difficult dilemma.


Retention *

For Sped Resources on retention, redshirting,  and Light’s Retention Scale, click here on Social Promotion and Retention in Grade

parent letter


Sample Parent Letters (for parents) *

New Hampshire Sample Parent Letters
Sample Letters and forms

Student Advocacy Center (Michigan)
The preceding sample letters have been created to make your life easier. Each sample letter has example information in each necessary field. This is to be used as a guide. You should always keep a copy of any letter for your own records

Adams and Associates (CA): Special Education Letters for Parents
“These are samples correspondence with instructions that parents of special needs children can use to draft letters to their child’s school district or other location educational agency (county office of education, etc.). IDEA 2004 and California Education Code citations as well as any relevant case law are also included.”  CA Code citations not relevant in any other state  of course.

Parent Center Hub: Communicating with your Child’s School Through Letter Writing  An archived publication from the National  Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (a.k.a., NICHCY) with general hints and suggestions on effective letter writing along with sample letters illustrating those suggestions.

SUPAC Sample Letters

A source in New York is SUPAC, which also provides a number of sample letters for parents on varying topics.  “Here are a few sample letters to help you get a start in putting your thoughts and or requests in writing.  They are not meant to be used word for word, but more as ideas to help you get started to put it in writing.  All letters are in Microsoft Word.”

Wrightslaw Advice on Letter Writing

Peter Wright, as you might imagine, has some letters as well.  General advice on letter writing can be found at   with an incredible wealth of information.  (My favorite, though, is his sample “thank you” letter.   Not everything parents send us has to be about their rights and/or our failures.)  There is a real danger when parents write letters while they are still angry that the effect may be counter to what they intend”

Letter to a Stranger

Peter’s page on a “Letter to a Stranger” illustrates both the right way and not-so-right way to go about doing that.

Search Engines, References, and Tools *

Google Scholar
Google search engine for scholarly articles

Google Translate/
Translations into other languages

Acronym Finder
Look up acronyms and abbreviations

Wayback Machine
WayBack Machine to find old, lost Web pages

Translations into other languages

Many useful on-line research tools

Amazon Advanced Search for Books
Books, including out of print

Bookfinder Search 
Books, including out of print

Encyclopaedia Brittanica
Encyclopedia Britannica

Education Resources Information Center.

Search engine

Google Specialized Search Engine
Google specialized search engines


Infoplease Encyclopedia
General information

Pics4Learning Home Page
Copyright-friendly, free images for multimedia

SPSS Statistical Software (Not free)
Statistics software, etc.

Stuffit for Mac (Apple)
Free Aladdin Expander

Language Line Solutions
Telephone. Translators and Interpreters 800-811-7881

The Free Dictionary
The Free Dictionary by Farlex

The Urban Dictionary
Slang dictionary updated by members

selective mutism


Selective Mutism *

Selective Mutism Support Group   (Added 4/12/2016)
Another Listserv sponsored by Yahoo.com.  Information on joining can be obtained at the link above.  This Listserv has about 1300 members.   It is active, but not overly so, with only 7 messages in the week preceding the addition of this resource.  The home page above contains a number of resources that have NOT been reviewed by this Editor.  The Listserv is not moderated and caution is advised before acting upon advice provided by other members. The Group Description readings in part,  “Welcome to this group for parents, teachers and friends of children with Selective Mutism.   Children with SM usually do not speak in public although they often will speak to other children. SM is caused by extreme anxiety, the child appears to be very shy, but it is much more than this.
For information about SM, please see our Links and Files under the More section above. You may leave your contact information through the Database feature, and find others that live in your area.”

K12  Academics  (Added 4/12/2016)
“Selective mutism is a social anxiety condition, in which a person who is quite capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations..”  Their web page on Treatment provides links to succinct summaries regarding major treatment options including desenisitization, drug treatments, and stimulus fading.Common Myths

Selective Mutism Foundation.  ” I have found that misconceptions are widespread about what selective mutism is and how children develop this problem.”   A widely cited and recommended website that provides a  general introduction from a national organization, limited resources.  Some potentially useful materials, but pricey, e.g., a sample 504 Plan for $20.

ASHA: Selective Mutism.
Selective Mutism (ASHA).  An excellent summary of treatment alternatives.  Probably the most authoritative source of free information.

PsychCentral: Symptoms of Selective Mutism
Symptoms of Selective Mutism (American Psychiatric Assn)   A brief two minute read; introduction to selective mutism only.

Medline Plus: Selective Mutism
Selective Mutism (Medline)   A very brief description of selective mutism; possibly handy as a handout

Huffington Post: Selective Mutism
Huffington Post article.   Mostly human interest stories about people who suffered from this malady.


social behavioral


Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Issues *

New Study Links Kindergarten Social-Emotional Skills to Long-Term Success  (April 10, 2017)
“The study examined the relationship between kindergarteners’ social-emotional readiness and key educational outcomes in more than 9,000 elementary school students enrolled in Baltimore City Public Schools.”

Zirkel – Use of Seclusion and Timeout    (Added September 4, 2016)
“The use of seclusion and restraints with students with disabilities has been a major legal issue in recent years. Congress has repeatedly considered bills to prohibit the use of seclusion and restrict the use of restraints in K–12 schools to emergency situations, but the chief proponent of federal legislation, Senator Tom Harkin, recently retired (C-SPAN, 2014), and the movement against such aversive procedures appears to have shifted to the state legislative level, with several states adding or strengthening laws restricting restraints in the wake of proposed federal legislation (Butler, 2015).”

Restraint and Seclusion: Resource Guide (U.S. Dept. Ed.) 2012

Although ED explicitly disclaims any endorsement of the views in this document, nevertheless according to LRP it has been referenced by the Office for Civil Rights as the standard it applies in responding to complaints that schools have violated a child’s civil right in at least seven districts

Multi-Modal Functional Assessment
Jeffrey Miller Multimodal Functional Behavioral Ass’t

Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation
Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation

CASEL: Success in School, Skills for Life
Collaborative for Academic, Social & Emotional Learning

American Counseling Association
American Counseling Association

DSM 5 Corrections
DSM 5 Implementation, Support, Corrections

NIH: Bipolar Disorder
NIMH page for Bipolar Disorder

International OCD Foundation
Obsessive-Compulsive Foundation

OSEP PBIS Technical Assistqance
Positive behavioral intervention

Positive Environments, Network of Trainers (CA)
Calififornia  Positive Environments Network of Trainers

Leslie E. Packer’s site: links, tips, etc.

Center for Advancement of Social and Emotional Learning
Center for Advancement of Social & Emotional Learning

BACB Home Page
Behavior Analysis Certification Board.  “The Behavior Analyst Certification Board®, Inc. (BACB®) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation established in 1998 to meet professional credentialing needs identified by behavior analysts, governments, and consumers of behavior analysis services”

School Motivation and Learning Skills Inventory
Based on more than 30 years of intensive research, the SMALSI, a commercial (not for free) product helps identify strengths and weaknesses that are related to a student’s academic success, and makes it possible to address weak learning strategies proactively  “The SMALSI consists of the Child Form (for ages 8 to 12) and the Teen Form (for ages 13 to 18). ”  Some psychologists recommend computer scoring over hand scoring

Jeff Rubin: Name Calling, Insults, and Teasing
Dr. Rubin’s Blog sub-titled “A Guide to  Anger, Conflict, and Respect”

social promotion

Social Promotion and Retention in Grade *

Note:  While there have been several studies posted on the Internet positing positive effects from retention, these have typically only followed students’ progress over shorter terms of time.   However, where substantial benefits were reported, there was also evidence of a substantial investment in instructional supports, such as individual tutoring; when retention is used as an intervention, successful outcomes for the students come at a cost significantly in excess that the repeated year alone costs the state.   See the Rand Study and the Public Policy Institute of California’s Research for outliers suggesting outcomes counter to virtually all of the research below.

Fair Test: Grade Retention – Still a Failed Policy
“Important new research by Guanglei Hong and Stephen Raudenbush reinforces years of findings that retaining students in grade harms rather than hurts the retained students without providing benefits to non-retained/promoted students. They looked at young children, whom retention proponents often view as the “safest” children to hold back, and concluded that “the kindergarten retention treatment leaves most retainees even further behind, and, therefore, impedes these children’s cognitive development over the repetition year.” While students who are retained do better the second year in the same grade, they actually would have learned substantially more if they had been promoted.”  (Added  4/2016)

Fair Test:  Test-Based Retention Program Fails in Chicago
“The first independent study of Chicago’s expensive grade retention program shows that about 70% of the 10,000 students who were required to repeat a grade in 1997 failed to meet minimum test scores for promotion set by the school system, even after test- prep summer school and a year of retention — at an annual cost exceeding $100 million. Retained students gained no more than similar low-achieving Chicago students who had simply been promoted before the new policy was put in place.”  (Added 4/2016)

Kindergarten Retention Fails to Help Academic Achievement
An older, 2005, study.  “For nearly 100 years, educators have debated the benefits of grade retention versus social promotion. A new examination of research on this perennially-controversial issue indicates that retention does not improve achievement among kindergartners in reading or mathematics, nor does it facilitate instruction by making classrooms more homogeneous academically. The report, based on the dissertation of Guanglei Hong, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, appears in the fall issue of Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis (EEPA), a peer-reviewed, scholarly journal published by the American Educational Research Association.”  (Added 4/2016)
NAESP:  Retention has no Place in America’s Schools
National Association of Elementary School  Principals:  “Why do I detest grade retention? Because the majority of research findings conclude that students who repeat a grade are harmed academically and socioemotionally and seldom persist to graduation.”

Retention, Delays, and Social Promotion.
Wrightslaw.   Over 20 links to various and sundry discussions.

Education Week:  Social Promotion
A discussion.   “Research suggests that neither social promotion nor retention is effective for improving student achievement.”

Five Strategies to Help Students Succeed.
Reading Rockets.  “This article takes the approach that if we avoid school failure in the first place, there might be less of a reason to consider retention.”

CDL Position Statement on Student Grade Retention and Social Promotion.
The Center for Development and Learning’s Position Statement.  “Despite a century of research that fails to support the efficacy of grade retention, the use of grade retention has increased over the past 25 years.”

IDRA:  Retention Fails but Continues to be Promoted.
Intercultural Development Research Assocation.  “The intuitive appeal of holding students back who have not mastered grade-level knowledge and skills is so strong and its history is so long that its efficacy is rarely questioned, even though research overwhelmingly shows that retention has negative personal and academic effects.”

NASP White Paper on Retention and Social Promotion.
NASP:  “The majority of studies conducted over the past four decades on the effectiveness of grade retention fail to support its efficacy in remediating academic deficits.”

Grade Retention and Promotion:  Information for Parents.
Another NASP publication.  “Whether used to address low performance and/or behavior problems, research generally has not found favorable achievement or adjustment outcomes for students who are retained.”

New Research Suggests Repeating Elementary Grades — Even Kindergarten — Is Harmful.
The Hechinger Report, Education by the Numbers.

What Research Says About . . . Grade Retention.
“overall the preponderance of evidence argues that students who repeat a grade are no better off, and are sometimes worse off, than if they had been promoted with their classmates.”  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)

Taking Responsibility for Ending Social Promotion (archived)
ED “Taking Responsibility for Ending Social Promotion (1999)

Fair Test: Testing and Grade Retention
“Along with the call to end social promotion has been a growing emphasis on using standardized tests as the way to measure whether students are ready to be promoted. In many districts, students must now obtain a certain score on a standardized exam to be promoted at various grade levels in elementary, middle and high school. Proponents of this use of tests argue that setting a passing requirement will cause students to try harder to pass. But testing experts, researchers and many education practitioners agree that standardized tests should not be used as a stick to persuade students nor be the sole measurement of achievement. ”


Redshirting *

The Pros and Cons of “Holding Out”
Wisconsin Center for Education Research.  ” Until we know more, Graue says, redshirting and early retention should not be widely promoted or endorsed.”

Can Your Kid Hack it in Kindergarten?
late:  “n 2006, researchers at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Southern California analyzed national data collected over many years from 15,000 26-year-olds. They compared what became of kids who had been redshirted to what became of kids who had been young for their class but not redshirted. They  found that the redshirted kids performed worse on 10th-grade tests, were twice as likely to drop out of school, and were less likely to graduate from college.”

Who Gets the Gift of  Time and What are the Outcomes?
American Education Research Journal.  “The achievement of redshirts is comparable to their normally entered peers; whereas retainees perform at lower levels.”

FAQ:  What are the Effects of Redshirting?
“Research on the effects of redshirting on children has shown mixed results.”

Beyond the Pros and Cons of Redshirting
“But it’s far from clear whether relative age has much to bear on a child’s future success. And absent a consensus, it may be best to hold off on redshirting, if only in the interest of playing it safe.”


Light’s Retention Scale *

Light’s Retention Scale has historically been used by many school systems in an effort to gauge whether or not a decision to retain a child will be more likely to help than hurt.  (It’s continued popularity can be inferred from the fact that it is now in the Fifth Edition.)  We have not posted a link to this rating scale in large part due to research articles like those below which have failed to substantiate the validity of the scale in practice.

Reliability and Concurrent Validity of Light’s Retention Scale
Abstract “Light’s retention scale does not meet standards for a psychometric device for schools.”

Light’s Retention Scale:  Does it Have Content Validity?
Abstract: ” It is concluded that Light’s retention scale should not be used for any purposes directly related to predictions or decisions about student performance and retention.”

Light’s Retention Scale does not Predict Success in First Grade Retainees
Abstract:  “This result, added to earlier studies, suggests that Light’s Retention Scale is neither reliable nor valid as a psychometric device.”


Special Education Organizations and Resources *

Resources available to general education that may also be relevant to special educators may be accessed by clicking here on General Education.

Amer. Assoc. Intellectual & Develop. Disabilities

ASAIF Home Page
Association of Specialists in Assessment of Intellectual Functioning

Autism Society of America
Autism Society of America

Autism Speaks Home Page
Autism Speaks

Brain Injury Association of America
Brain Injury Association of America

Council for Exceptional Children

International Association of Special Education
“The vision of the International Association of Special Education (IASE) is to improve the quality of life and service delivery for all individuals with special needs. ”

International Dyslexia Association

Learning Disabilities Association of America

National Association of Special Education Teachers
“The National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET) is the only national membership organization dedicated solely to meeting the needs of special education teachers and those preparing for the field of special education teaching.”

SERI (Special Ed Resources)
Special Education Resources on the Internet

Specific Learning Disabilities *

See Learning Disabilities on this page for additional links.

See Disability Info/Specific Learning Disabilities for historic documents.

See  Disability Info/Specific Learning Disabilities/Dyslexia for federal memos, organizations,and other reasources.

speech language

Speech/Language Impairments *

An Exploration of Instructional Practices that Foster Language Development and Comprehension: Evidence from Prekindergarten through Grade 3 in Title I Schools  (August 2017)

Published by the Institute of Educational Sciences, the purpose of this study was “To examine the relationships between instructional practices and student growth in language and comprehension, we observed instructional practices in a sample of classrooms within Title I schools and administered assessments to students in those classrooms. The following sections provide an overview of the study sample (Section A), how we measured instructional practices (Section B), how we measured students’ language development and comprehension (Section C), the approaches we used to analyze the data (Section D), and the study’s key limitations (Section E).”

Specific links documenting the relationship between language deficits and problems in reading, writing, and math  (added February 4, 2017)

The Relationship Between Math and Language
Conclusion Mathematical difficulties of children who are ELLs appear to be related to the language demands of mathematics tasks. In contrast, children with SLI appear to have difficulty with mathematics tasks because of linguistic as well as nonlinguistic processing constraints.

The SLP’s Role (ASHA)
Math word problems include complex vocabulary and sentence structure and, therefore, are clearly within the scope of practice for an SLP to address. • A child’s ability to complete mathematical calculations may be masked by his or her inability to comprehend the complex language used in word problems. . Lack of success in math may well be language-related.

Supporting Students in the Language and Vocabulary of Math

. While it may appear easy to separate math from language arts and reading, the subjects and skills needed for each are increasingly intermingled. Because math is language-based, students with communication disorders may need support in the language and vocabulary of math. With federal mandates requiring specialists to teach to academic standards, addressing the language of math is within the scope of practice of speech-language pathologists.

ASHA’s Literacy Gateway.
“SLPs are often the first professionals to identify the root cause of reading and writing problems through a child’s difficulty with language. SLPs help children to build the skills they need to succeed in school and in life.”

General Information

Facilitated Communication
Free download of research on this debunked fad intervention

ASHA Home Page
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

ASHA Child Speech and Language
American Speech Language Hearing Association.  The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is the national professional, scientific, and credentialing association for more than 173,070 audiologists, speech-language pathologists, speech, language, and hearing scientists, audiology and speech-language pathology support personnel, and students.”

NIH: Specific Language Impairment
“The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts and supports research in the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, taste, smell, voice, speech, and language..”)

LDOnline Specific Language Impairment
LD OnLine.org is the world’s leading website on learning disabilities and ADHD, serving more than 200,000 parents, teachers, and other professionals each month.”

NASET: Speech and Language Topics
The National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET) is a national membership organization dedicated to rendering all possible support and assistance to those preparing for or teaching in the field of special education. NASET was founded to promote the profession of special education teachers and to provide a national forum for their ideas.”

Headstart Speech and Language Impairments
“The Office of Head Start (OHS) promotes the school readiness of young children from low-income families through local programs.”

Kidshealth: Delayed Speech or Language
“Kidshealth is the number 1 most visited site for children’s health and development.”

do2learn: Speech and Language Impairments
Strategies for teaching language and speech.  “It is important to implement strategies that address the needs of the individual.  We recommend that you apply these strategies across home, school, and community contexts.”

Reading Rockets: Helping Children with Communication Disorders
Helping Children with Communication Disorders (Reading Rockets) by ASHA

Speech-language resources.com
“Effective classroom strategies really grew from a combination of sources. The tips outlined are a compilation of ideas from experienced teachers, text-books and from my own background and understanding. “

Stuttering  (Added 1/30/2018) *

Stuttering – ASHA
“For young children, it is important to predict whether the stuttering is likely to continue. An evaluation consists of a series of tests, observations, and interviews designed to estimate the child’s risk for continuing to stutter.”

The Stuttering Foundation
“Stuttering is a communication disorder in which the flow of speech is broken by repetitions (li-li-like this), prolongations (lllllike this), or abnormal stoppages (no sound) of sounds and syllables.”

Science Direct Research Abstract
“Effect of an 8 week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers:

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
“For very young children, early treatment may prevent developmental stuttering from becoming a lifelong problem. Certain strategies can help children learn to improve their speech fluency while developing positive attitudes toward communication. Health professionals generally recommend that a child be evaluated if he or she has stuttered for 3 to 6 months, exhibits struggle behaviors associated with stuttering, or has a family history of stuttering or related communication disorders. ”

 “There’s no cure for stuttering, but effective treatments are available and you can help your child overcome it.”

National Stuttering Association
“Many individuals benefit from various forms of speech therapy and from support groups like the National Stuttering Association.”

Mayo Clinic – Stuttering
“Speech difficulties that appear after an emotional trauma (psychogenic stuttering) are uncommon and not the same as developmental stuttering.”statistics

Statistics *

Assessing Psyche
W. Joel Schneider: superb tutorials

Statistical Programs (Free Downloads for Mac and Windows)
Marley Watkins: many free statistics programs

Video by Joel Scheider on Measurement Scales
“An introduction to measurement scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio”Psychology Major Rat. Good Lord I have never heard one statement so many times in my life:

Links to Free Statistical Software
“This page contains links to free software packages that you can download and install on your computer for stand-alone (offline, non-Internet) computing.”  (None tested by the editors.)

Top Free Statistical Software
More links to “free” statistical software; none reviewed by the Editors.


Suicide Prevention *

Note:  Many state departments of educations offer advice and support on suicide prevention. Googling your own Education Department may turn up additional valuable (and more local) resources.

For a brief discussion of suicide prevention programs and additional NASP resources, see Q and A 4.0, 4’10/2016

APA: Suicidal Behavior in Children and Adolescents
A thirty page easy to read guide to helping prevent suicide

Teen Suicide is Preventable
“Teen suicide is a growing health concern. It is the third-leading cause of death for young people ages 15 to 24, surpassed only by homicide and accidents, according to the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.”

Ten Things Parents Can Do To Prevent Suicide
“Maybe your child is merely having a bad day, but maybe it’s something more. Nine in ten adolescents who take their own lives were previously diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder—more than half of them with a mood disorder such as depression. Depressed people often retreat into themselves, when secretly they’re crying out to be rescued.”

KidsHealth: About Teen Suicide
“The tragedy of a young person dying because of overwhelming hopelessness or frustration is devastating to family, friends, and community.”

AAP Some Things You Should Know About Preventing Teen Suicide
Suicide is the eighth leading cause of death for all persons regardless of age, sex or race; the third leading cause of death for young people aged 15 to 24; and the fourth leading cause of death for persons between the ages of 10 and 14.“

NIMH Suicide Prevention
“In order to be able to detect those at risk and prevent suicide, it is crucial that we understand the role of both long-term factors—such as experiences in childhood—and more immediate factors like mental health and recent life events.”

WHO: Preventing Suicide
World Health Organization:  “In WHO’s first suicide report “Preventing suicide: a global imperative” information is included on what is known about suicide across the world, groups at particular risk of suicide, and what can be done at both societal and individual level to reduce the number of deaths from suicide.”


Technology *

Discover Technology
Links for disabilities and technology

Net Lingo
Tech and Internet acronyms, abbreviations, and terms

Trace Center University of Wisconsin
Trace Center University of Wisconsin

Products for the deaf and hard of hearing

Lyx The Document Processor
Math-friendly document processor

Metroplex: voice-activated, on-screen math computing

Pearson CA Calculator
Downloadable CA calculator

Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology

Section 504 Regulations and Guidance
Section 508 technology accessibility rules

Telecommunications Equipment Distribution Program Association.

texthelp Home Page
Sells screen readers, etc.

The Ultimate Guide to Section 508
“In short, federal law requires government agencies to create and use electronic devices, and content developed to be used with them (e.g., websites, media files, etc.), that people with disabilities can readily access. ”


Testing and Journal Data Bases *

Pearson Support for WISC IV
Includes handy dandy explanation of why the FSIQ may be lower than any of the other scores

Current Issues in Education
Arizona State University:  Current Issues in Education  (Free)

APA Monitor (Free)
American Psychological Association Monitor

Education News
Daily general education news and links

Education World
Education World

Education Week
Education Week


Journal Watch (Medical Articles)
Journal Watch Online: comments by MDs

New York Times
New York Times  (Limited free access; subscription required)

Phi Delta Kappan International
Phi Delta Kappan

The ‘Free Library by Farlex
Free access to some journals

Scientific American
Scientific American  (Unlimited access requires subscription)

Social Psychology Network
Social Psychology

Buros Mental Measurements
Buros Mental Measurements Yearbooks  (Reviews for a fee)


Tourette Syndrome *

What is Tourette’s Syndrome?
ourette Association of America.   Discussion of criteria based on DSM 5 and a downloadable handout for parents.

Teen Health: Tourette Syndrome
“Many people have tics that go away in less than a year or mild tics that don’t interfere with their lives. But in some people, tics are more severe or long lasting.”

Mayo Clinic: Tourette Syndrome
“Although there’s no cure for Tourette syndrome, treatments are available. Many people with Tourette syndrome don’t need treatment when symptoms aren’t troublesome. Tics often lessen or become controlled after the teen years.”

WebMD: Brain and Nervous System Health Center
“The main symptom is tics. Some are so mild they’re not even noticeable. Others happen often and are obvious. Stress, excitement, or being sick or tired can make them worse. The more severe ones can be embarrassing and can affect your social life or work.”

CDC: Facts About Tourette Syndrome
“There is no single test, like a blood test, to diagnose TS. Health professionals look at the person’s symptoms to diagnose TS and other tic disorders. The tic disorders differ from each other in terms of the type of tic present (motor or vocal, or combination of the both), and how long the symptoms have lasted. TS can be diagnosed if a person has both motor and vocal tics, and has had tic symptoms for at least a year.”

Tourette Syndrome “Plus” Home Page
Tourette Syndrome “Plus”

The National Tourette Syndrome Assn. Home Page
The Tourette Syndrome Association


Transition: School-to-Work (STW) or to Higher Education *

Guide for On-Line Colleges
“This guide is by no means meant to be comprehensive. Rather, its purpose is to serve as a starting point, one of many resources for students to use in their own research. Ultimately, it is up to you to determine both your needs and which school best meets them.”

College Resources for Students with Disabilities
“With the advances of adaptive technologies and trend toward progressive legislation, prospective college students with disabilities now have countless resources available to make their transition to postsecondary education less stressful. Below, find specific information and resources on a variety of different disabilities, learn how to make the transition into the workforce easier, and find out what your legal rights on campus are”

California: Secondary Transition Planning
California Department of Education (2015).  This Web page offers resources and guidelines for assisting educators, parents, and agency partners to improve compliance with state and federal laws and regulations pertaining to transition age youth and improve post-high school outcomes. These resources supplement the California Transition Alliance’s document, Transition Planning: The Basics. Resources are organized into five categories: Employment, Education and Training, Independent Living, Compliance, and theGuideposts for Success document.

Office of Career, Technical and Adult Education
Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education (OCTAE) administers, coordinates programs that are related to adult education and literacy, career and technical education, and community colleges.

Wrightslaw on Transition
Legal Requirements for Transition

Understanding Special Education.com: Transition
Understanding the Transition Process

OCR: Planning for post secondary education
OCR on planning for post-secondary education

Life Skills Inventory Assessment Tool
“The life skills inventory independent living skills assessment tool is provided by the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services to assess the level that students are at in the process of independent living.”


Travel *

Travel Accessibility Resources
Preparing for plane travel can be a time-consuming endeavor, but with the help of airline representatives, travel agents, and friends or family, those with disabilities can enjoy a safe and fun trip on any airline. Ensuring that all necessary medical equipment, medications, and supplies are accounted for before leaving home will make traveling easier and healthier. When traveling with a disability, it can be best to consider your specific impairment and plan ahead with your own particular abilities in mind.

Accessible Travel  Travel tips for people needing wheelchairs (and with other disabilities) by Patti Jackson (Wakanow.com Travel Agency)


Trauma, Dealing With *

A compendium of resources from Bridgeport, Connecticut

Guidance for supporting students who have experienced trauma or grief and for coping with violence and disasters.

By Matt Davis


Understanding Trauma’s Effects on Learning

  • Childhood Trauma and Positive Health: Learn about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and how they can impact a child’s developing brain and are linked to high-risk behaviors, chronic diseases, and negative health outcomes in adulthood. (The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, 2017)
  • How Trauma Is Changing Children’s Brains: Explore the latest research on the effects trauma has on young people’s brains, and learn strategies you can use to make your classroom feel safer. (NEA Today, 2016)
  • Responding to Trauma in Your Classroom: Examine the signs and causes of student trauma, and explore strategies for responding to and supporting students who are experiencing trauma. (Teaching Tolerance, 2016)
  • How Teachers Help Students Who’ve Survived Trauma: Read about how experiences with trauma impact student learning, and review several expert suggestions on ways that educators and schools can help. (The Atlantic, 2014)
  • Helping Kids Recover From Trauma: Discover how resilience can be fostered by supportive factors in schools, and read takeaways from research. (Edutopia, 2009)

Helping Students Who Have Experienced Trauma

  • Brains in Pain Cannot Learn: Learn three ways to calm the stress response in students affected by anxiety or depression. (Edutopia, 2016)
  • 5 Ways to Help Students in Trauma: Read strategies and tips for creating a calming classroom environment that can help troubled students learn. (Edutopia, 2016)
  • Helping Students Who Have Experienced Trauma: Explore seven strategies you can use in your classroom to help support and empower students in trauma. (Edutopia, 2016)
  • How Not to Be a Mountain Troll: Take a look at four strategies that educators can use to build trust with students, especially vulnerable students who may have experienced abuse from adults. (ASCD’s Educational Leadership, 2015)
  • Emotional Recovery Begins With Teachers: Examine five RULER-based suggestions (recognizing, understanding, labeling, expressing, and regulating emotions) for helping adults and children cope with the aftermath of school violence or other experiences with trauma. (Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence)
  • Activities to Help Students Cope With Traumatic Experiences: Discover games, videos, and other activities to help children endure traumatic experiences. (Sesame Street in Communities)

School-Wide Approaches to Addressing Trauma

Strategies for Coping With Violence and Disaster

Supporting Grieving Students

Traumatic Brain Injury *

Understanding Concussion and its Impact on Learning   September 10, 2016.
A North Carolina parent handout on concussion injuries developed by the state of NC in 2016.  “A concussion can impact a child’s ability to learn and stay focused. Regardless of the intensity of the head impact, a concussion is a type of brain injury that changes the way the brain normally works. It is caused by a bump, blow or jolt (with or without physical contact) to the head. Concussions can occur without loss of consciousness.”  Note:  “In the Amendments Act  Congress clarified that an individual is not “regarded as” an individual with a disability if the impairment is transitory and minor.  A transitory impairment is an impairment with an actual or expected duration of 6 months or less. (Emphasis added.)”  (OCR FAQ on 504, Question 34.)

NC State Board of Education Policy on Concussion (2011)   Added September 10, 2016
NC state guidelines for addressing a student’s needs after a concussion including state forms.  May be helpful to other schools in other states trying to develop local guidelines.

Columbia Neurosurgery
Pediatric Neurosurgery page Browse Conditions

Traumatic Brain Injury (New Hampshire)
Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Teens BIANH

Brain Injury Association of America
Brain Injury Association of America

Traumatic Brain Injury.com
Traumaticbraininjury.com: Comprehensive listing of links

CDC Injury Prevention and Control (TBI)
Center for Disease Control and  Prevention

Mayo Clinic: TBI
Mayo Clinic

NIH TBI Information Page
NIH TBI Information Page

ASHA TBI information

Child Head Injury

Medscape: TBI in Children
TBI in Children (Medscape)

A Parent’s Guide


Veracity Verifiers *

Symantec: Security Response
Internet hoaxes, virus hoaxes, etc.

Internet hoaxes, virus hoaxes, etc.

Urban legends and Folklore
Urban Legends and Folklore

Internet hoaxes, virus hoaxes, etc.

Tampa Bay Times: Politifact.com
Political fact checks Tampa Bay Times

Stephen Barrett, MD, Guide to Health Fraud

Snopes.com                                             I
nternet hoaxes, virus hoaxes, etc.__


Writing *

Guide to grammar and composition Richard Nordquist

Purdue 2Owl Reading Lab
Purdue on-line writing lab

APA 2009 Corrections
American Psychological Association

More 2009 APA Corrections
Publication Manual

APA Sample Experiment Paper

APA FAQs re Publication Manual

National Writing Project
National Writing Project

National Writing Project
Resources for teaching writing

Quick and dirty Grammar Tips
Mignon Fogarty grammar tips